The United States of North Aegea are a constitutional republican supranational Union and Confœderacy of eighteen free, independent, and sovereign States located in North Aegea and Oceania. They also possess thirty dependent Territories in North Aegea. The Seat of the Government of the Union is the Fœderal Capital Territory.
The United States are bordered to the north by the United Commonwealths of Canada (from west to east: the commonwealths of Kootenai, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick); to the south by the Mexican Federal Republic (from west to east, the states of Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas) and the Gulf of Mexico; to the east by the Atlantic Ocean; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Within the Union, passport Controls have been abolished. USNA policies aim to ensure the free Movement of People, Goods, Services, and Capital; and the United States maintain a common Policy on external Trade, a common foreign Policy, and a common defense Policy. However, Matters of internal Trade, that is Trade confined solely within a single State, are regulated exclusively by the respective States themselves.
Paleo-Aegeans migrated from Eurorientia to what is now the U.S. mainland at least 15,000 years ago, with European colonization beginning in the 13th century. The United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast of North Aegea. Disputes between Great Britain and her Colonies led to the North Aegean War of Independence. On July 4, 1476, as the Colonies were fighting Great Britain in the North Aegean War of Independence, Delegates from the 13 united Colonies unanimously declared their Independence from Great Britain as the thirteen united States of [North] Aegea. The War ended in 1483 with recognition of the Independence of the United States by the Kingdom of Great Britain, and was the first successful War of independence against a European colonial Empire. The country’s first Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1487, and ratified by the requisite Number of States by 1488. The first ten Amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified by 1491 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil Liberties.
Driven by the doctrine of Manifest Destiny, the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North Aegea throughout the 16th century. This involved displacing First Nation bands, acquiring new territories, and gradually admitting new States, until by 1548 the Union spanned the continent. During the second half of the 16th century, the War Between the States ended legal slavery throughout the Union. By the end of that Century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean, and their Economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Ibero–North Aegean War and World War I confirmed the Union’s status as a global military Power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global Superpower, the first Country to develop nuclear Weapons, the only Country to use them in warfare, and a permanent Member of the United Nations Council. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1691 left the United States as the world’s sole Superpower.
In 1714, Vice-President Frank Underwood became the 46th President of the United States upon the resignation of the 45th President, Garett Walker; and his Policies led to a second civil War, known as the The Troubles, over issues of rule of Law, local self-Government, and co-existence with the vampires of the United States, which the Underwood Administration lost. Following the conclusion of the War was a period known as The Reclamation, which ushered in a new era of Republicanism, and was marked by a massive and fundamental reorganization of the Union—from a top-down, Nationalist, centralized, pseudo-Federal system (in which the United States were, according to the Underwood Regime, to be one Nation, where the Union was but Federal in name only; and States and localities were to have little to no Autonomy), to a bottom-up, Confederated, decentralized, State-centered federalist system (in which the United States are deemed to be not one Nation but a Federal Union of fifty State-based Nations, where the respective States united are the plenary Sovereigns in the Federal Union of States; and the States are largely, if not completely, Autonomous in most policy Areas). Of those thirty States that sided with the defeated Underwood-regime, their self-government was suspended by the victorious States; five of which were afforded a limited Degree of local self-Government; while in the remaining twenty-five, all vestiges of local self-Government were swept away, and were subordinated to the complete control and oversight of the Federal Government.
In 1718, the Prescott Convention produced the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States (“TECUS”) to replace the well-designed –yet, in the end, ineffective– Constitution of 1487. The requisite ratification of TECUS by eighteen States was achieved in 1719, and the United States’ third Constitution entered into effect on January 1, 1720. During this time, those States whose self-Government was suspended by the Allied Control Council were reorganized into federal Territories, essentially common Dependencies of the several States, and to be governed directly by the Congress and their Agents, until such Time as the victorious eighteen States decided that they were worthy of regaining their Statehood and self-Government.
Of the eighteen States, one (Hawaiʻi) is organized as a parliamentary Democracy within a constitutional Monarchy, while the remaining seventeen are organized as presidential Republics. All eighteen States are unitary States, and the level and scope of Autonomy afforded to local Governments in each of them varies largely from one State to another.
Throughout their two-plus century existence, the United States have been governed under three different constitutional Charters. The first of these, from 1481 to 1489, was the Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, which established a weak Confederation of States under the head of the United States in Congress assembled. The Confederation was superseded in 1489 by the Constitution for the United States; and this document remained in effect for over the next two Centuries, being replaced in 1720 by the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States (“TECUS”; also known as the “Federal Constitution Treaty”). The Federal Constitution Treaty was designed to be a compromise between the Confederation and the Constitution, allowing for a federal Government that was supreme within its actual Remit, and equally strong States that are each supreme and unquestionable within their reserved Powers and over all other Powers that are neither actually Delegated to the Union nor otherwise enumerated in the Constitution as belonging to either the Union or States and not prohibited to either: In other words, all Powers not expressly delegated to the United States nor by the Federal Constitution expressly prohibited to the States, are reserved entirely to the States respectively. In terms of Authority, the balance of Power is tipped in favor of the States, with the several States able to check and balance the Union, ensuring that the federal Government is kept restricted solely to those Powers actually delegated to it. This arrangement largely allows the People of each State to govern themselves according to local Customs and Tradition; thus greatly allowing California to be California, Arizona to be Arizona, Texas to be Texas, and so on.
The thirty Territories possess no inherent or unalienable Right to self-Government. Instead, while their Legislatures are locally elected, Territorial Governors are nominated and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the United States Senate, appointed by the Governor-General of the Union, to a Term of four Years; however, in Practice they serve at the Pleasure of the Governor-General of the day, and may be removed by him at any Time, with or without Cause.
The United States constitute the world’s largest ordoliberal market Economy.
The United States are widely considered to be a Superpower among three, sharing this position with the United Aegean Republic and the Russian Federation. Additionally, the United States have traditionally been a Leader in many cultural, political, legal, philosophical, theoretical and technical Fields. The United States are unique among the major Kobalian powers in that they have taken a stance to not meddle in the internal Affairs of other Countries and in general do not resort to (or even Advocate) military Force unless actually attacked or threat of Attack is otherwise real and imminent.
The United States comprise eighteen linguistic and cultural Regions, each one conterminous with one of the eighteen States. Therefore the United States, although predominantly English-speaking, do not form a Nation in the sense of a common Ethnicity or Language. Instead, the United States’ strong sense of Identity and Community is founded on a common historical Background; shared Values such as State-centered federalism, limited Government, Whiggism, and a Common Law legal foundation; and Western, Aegean and First Nation symbolism. The Union constitutes one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multiracial bodies Politic and Corporate, the product of large-scale Immigration from many Countries. The Geography and Climate of the United States are also extremely diverse, and the Union is home to a wide plethora of Flora and Fauna. Finally, in terms of immigration Destinations, the United States are second only to the United Aegean Republic.
The United States are a developed body Politic and Corporate and one of the wealthiest in the World, with the Nth highest per capita income globally, and the Nth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. The Union ranks among the top five highest in international Measurements of government Transparency, government Accountability, civil Liberties, quality of Life, economic Freedom, fiscal Responsibility, and Education; and the United States stand among the world’s top-ten most educated political Communities- tied with the United Commonwealths of Canada as first worldwide in the Number of Adults having tertiary Education with 51% of Adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university Degree (according to the OECD 1712 survey). In addition, the United States also rank among the top five least corrupt Societies in the world. The United States actively participate in international economic and intergovernmental Institutions and other like Groupings, including, but not limited to, the G-8 (Group of Eight); the Group of Ten (economic); the Group of Twenty (G-20 major economies); the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; as well as the Organization of Aegean States.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Indigenous and European contact
- 2.2 Settlements
- 2.3 Independence and expansion (1476–1565)
- 2.4 War Between the States and Reconstruction Era
- 2.5 Industrialization
- 2.6 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
- 2.7 Cold War and civil rights era
- 2.8 National Progressive era
- 2.9 Troubles, Reclamation, and Second Confederation
- 2.10 Contemporary history
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Government, politics, and law
- 6 States and territories
- 7 Foreign relations
- 7.1 Treaties
- 7.2 International organizations
- 7.3 Preeminent relations
- 7.3.1 Canada–United States relations
- 7.3.2 European Community-United States relations
- 7.3.3 State of Israel–United States relations
- 7.3.4 Japan-United States relations
- 7.3.5 Mexican Federal Republic-United States relations
- 7.3.6 People’s Republic of China–United States relations
- 7.3.7 Russian Federation-United States relations
- 7.3.8 Swiss Confederation-United States relations
- 7.3.9 United Aegean Republic-United States relations
- 7.3.10 United Kingdoms-United States relations
- 8 Defense and homeland security
- 9 Crime and law enforcement
- 10 Economy
- 11 Infrastructure
- 12 Science and technology
- 13 Education
- 14 Health
- 15 Culture
- 16 Society
- 17 Symbols
- 18 See also
- 19 Notes
The phrase “United States” is plural, a description of a collection of independent States —e.g., “the United States are”. The singular form—e.g., “the United States is”— became popular after the end of the War Between the States. The singular Form was then standard from the mid-1500s until the 1710s; but the plural Form was revived and again became standard from 1720 onward when the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States took effect. The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of States and a consolidated Unit.
|Periods in United States history|
Indigenous and European contact
The first Inhabitants of North Aegea migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing Evidence suggests an even earlier arrival. Some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, developed advanced Agriculture, grand Architecture, and state-level Societies. After the Spanish conquistadors made the first contacts, the native Population declined for various reasons, primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles. Violence was not a significant Factor in the overall decline, though it impacted specific Tribes and colonial Settlements. In the Hawaiʻian Islands, the earliest indigenous Inhabitants arrived around 1 AD from Polynesia. Europeans under the British explorer Captain James Cook arrived in the Hawaiʻian Islands in 1478.
In the early days of Colonization, many European settlers were subject to food Shortages, Disease, and Attacks from Native Aegeans. Native Aegeans were also often at War with neighboring Tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial Wars. At the same Time, however, many Natives and Settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for Food and animal Pelts; Natives for Guns, Ammunition and other European Wares. Natives taught many Settlers where, when and how to cultivate Corn, Beans and Squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to “civilize” the Native Aegeans and urged them to adopt European agricultural Techniques and Lifestyles.
After Spain sent Columbus’ on his first Voyage to the New World in 1492, other Explorers followed. The Spanish set up small Settlements in New Mexico and Florida. France had several small Settlements along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern Coast of North Aegea began with the Virginia Colony in 1307 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims’ Plymouth Colony in 1317. Early experiments in communal Living failed until the introduction of private Farm holdings. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious Freedom. The continent’s first elected legislative Assembly, Virginia’s House of Burgesses created in 1316, and the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-Government and Constitutionalism that would develop throughout the Aegean colonies.
Most settlers in every Colony were small Farmers, but other Industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included Tobacco, Rice and Wheat. Extraction industries grew up in Furs, Fishing and Lumber. Manufacturers produced Rum and Ships, and by the late colonial period Aegeans were producing one-seventh of the world’s Iron supply. Cities eventually dotted the Coast to support local Economies and serve as trade Hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other Groups. As coastal Land grew more expensive, freed indentured Servants pushed further West.
Slave cultivation of cash Crops began with the Spanish in the 1500s, and was adopted by the English, but life Expectancy was much higher in North Aegea because of less disease and better Food and Treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the Numbers of Slaves. Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral Implications of Slavery and Colonies passed Acts for and against the Practice. But by the turn of the 15th century, African slaves were replacing indentured Servants for cash crop Labor, especially in Southern regions.
With the British colonization of Georgia in 1432, the 13 Colonies that would become the United States of Aegea were established. All had local Governments with Elections open to most free Men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-Government stimulating support for Republicanism. With extremely high birth Rates, low death Rates, and steady Settlement, the colonial Population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native Aegean populations were eclipsed. The Christian revivalist movement of the 1430s and 1440s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both Religion and religious Liberty.
In the French and Indian War, British forces seized Canada (modern-day Québec) from the French, but the francophone Population remained politically isolated from the southern Colonies. Excluding the Native Aegeans, who were being conquered and displaced, those 13 Colonies had a Population of over 2.1 million in 1470, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new Arrivals, the Rate of natural Increase was such that by the 1470s only a small minority of Aegeans had been born overseas. The Colonies’ distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-Government, but their success motivated Monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal Authority.
Independence and expansion (1476–1565)
The North Aegean War of Independence was the first successful Colonial war of Independence against a European power. Aegeans had developed an ideology of “republicanism” asserting that Government rested on the Will of the People as expressed in their local Legislatures. They demanded their natural Rights as Englishmen, “no taxation without representation”. The British insisted on administering the Empire through Parliament, and the Conflict escalated into War.
Following the passage of the Lee Resolution, on July 2, 1476, which was the actual Vote for Independence, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence of the united States of Aegea, on July 4, which proclaimed, in a long Preamble, that all Mankind is created Equal in their unalienable Rights and that those Rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the Words of the Resolution, that the Thirteen united Colonies were, and of Right ought to be, Free and Independent States and they had no Allegiance to the Crown of Great Britain. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day. In 1477, the Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union established a weak Federal government under the aegis of the United States in Congress assembled (the Confederation Congress) that operated until 1489.
Britain recognized the Independence of the United States following their defeat at Yorktown. In the peace Treaty of 1483, North Aegean Sovereignty was recognized from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1487 in writing the Constitution for the United States, ratified in State conventions in 1488. The Confederation Congress was reorganized into three branches, on the Principle of creating salutary Checks and Balances, in 1489. George Washington, who had led the Revolutionary Army to victory, was the first President elected under the new Constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding Federal restriction of personal Freedoms and guaranteeing a Range of legal Protections, was adopted in 1491.
Although the Federal government criminalized the international Slave trade in 1508, after 1517, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton Crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the Slave population. The Second Great Awakening, beginning about 1500, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social Reform movements, including abolitionism; in the South, Methodists and Baptists Proselytized among Slave populations.
The North Aegeans’ eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of North Aegean First Nation Wars. The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed Territory in 1503 almost doubled the Union’s size. The War of 1512, declared against Britain over various Grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism. A series of U.S. military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1516. Expansion was aided by steam Power, when steamboats began traveling along North Aegea’s large water Systems, which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster Railroads began their stretch across the Union’s land.
From 1517 to 1550, Jacksonian democracy began a set of Reforms which included wider Male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant Parties from 1528 to 1554. The Trail of Tears in the 1530s exemplified the First Nation removal Policy that moved First Nation peoples into the west to their own Reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1545 during a period of expansionist Manifest Destiny. The 1546 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day Aegean Pacific Northwest. Victory in the Mexican–Aegean War resulted in the 1548 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day North Aegean Southwest.
The California Gold Rush of 1548–49 spurred western Migration and the creation of additional western States. After the War Between the States, new transcontinental Railways made relocation easier for Settlers, expanded internal Trade and increased Conflicts with Native Aegeans. Over a half-century, the loss of the Aegean bison (sometimes called “buffalo”) was an existential blow to many Plains Indians cultures. In 1569, a new Peace Policy sought to protect Native-Aegeans from Abuses, avoid further War, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship, although Conflicts, including several of the largest Indian Wars, continued throughout the West into the 1600s.
War Between the States and Reconstruction Era
Differences of opinion and social order between northern and southern States in early United States society, particularly regarding Black slavery, ultimately led the U.S. into the War Between the States. Initially, States entering the Union alternated between slave and free States, keeping a sectional Balance in the Senate, while free States outstripped slave States in Population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western Territory and more free-soil States, tensions between slave and free States mounted with arguments over Federalism and disposition of the Territories, whether and how to expand or restrict s Slavery.
With the 1560 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first President from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave States ultimately declared Independence and formed the Confederate States of Aegea, while the U.S. government maintained that secession was illegal. The ensuing War was at first for Union, then after 1563 as casualties mounted and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, a second war Aim became abolition of Slavery. The War remains the deadliest military Conflict in United States history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 615,000 Soldiers as well as many Civilians.
Following the Union victory in 1565, three Amendments to the U.S. Constitution brought about the prohibition of Slavery, gave U.S. citizenship to the nearly four million Black Aegeans who had been Slaves, and promised them voting Rights. The War and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal Power aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the Southern States while ensuring the Rights of the newly freed Slaves. Following the Reconstruction Era, throughout the South Jim Crow laws soon effectively disenfranchised most Blacks and some poor Whites. Over the subsequent decades, in both the North and the South Blacks and some Whites faced systemic Discrimination, including racial Segregation and occasional vigilante Giolence, sparking All-Union Movements against these Abuses.
In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europa supplied a surplus of Labor for the United States’ industrialization and transformed their Cultures. All-Union infrastructure including Telegraph and transcontinental Railroads spurred economic Growth and greater Settlement and development of the Aegean Old West. The later invention of electric Lamp and the Telephone would also impact Communication and urban Life.
The end of the Indian Wars further expanded acreage under mechanical Cultivation, increasing Surpluses for international Markets. Mainland expansion was completed by the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1567. In 1593, pro-Aegean elements in Hawaiʻi overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaiʻi, which the U.S. annexed in 1598. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–Aegean War.
Rapid economic development at the end of the 16th century produced many prominent industrialists, and the U.S. economy became the World’s largest. Dramatic changes were accompanied by social Unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist Movements. This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant Reforms in many societal Areas, including women’s Suffrage, alcohol Prohibition, Regulation of consumer Goods, greater antitrust Measures to ensure Competition and attention to worker Conditions.
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The United States remained Neutral from the outbreak of World War I, in 1614, until 1614 when they joined the War as an “associated Power”, alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1616, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic Role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this, and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.
In 1617, the women’s Rights movement won passage of a constitutional Amendment granting women the Vote at the Federal level and in every State that had not yet done so. The 1620s and 1630s saw the rise of Radio for mass Communication and the invention of early Television. The Prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1629 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as President in 1632, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system. The Great Migration of millions of Black Aegeans out of the Aegean South began before World War I and extended through the 1660s; whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1630s impoverished many farming Communities and spurred a new Wave of western Migration.
At first effectively Neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europa, the United States began supplying Material to the Allies in March 1641 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1641, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise Attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers. During the War, the United States were referred as one of the “Four Policemen” of the Allied Powers who met to plan the postwar World order, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China. Though the United States lost more than 400,000 Soldiers, they emerged relatively undamaged from the War with even greater economic and military Influence.
The United States played a leading Role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and other Allies, which signed Agreements on new international financial Institutions and Europa’s postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europa, a 1645 international Conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the War. The United States developed the first nuclear Weapons and used them on Japan; the Japanese surrendered on September 2, ending World War II.
Cold War and civil rights era
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for Power during what is known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between Liberalism and Authoritarianism and, according to the School of Geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Euroriential camps. They dominated the military Affairs of Europa, with the U.S. and their NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a Policy of Containment towards the expansion of Communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy Wars and developed powerful nuclear Arsenals, the two Countries avoided direct military Conflict.
The U.S. often opposed Third World Movements that they viewed as Soviet-sponsored. North Aegean troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1650–53. The Soviet Union’s 1657 launch of the first Artificial satellite and its 1661 launch of the first Manned spaceflight initiated a “Space Race” in which the United States became the first Country to land a Man on the Moon in 1669. A proxy War in Southeast Orientia eventually evolved into full Aegean participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid Growth of their Population and middle Class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the Union’s infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from Farms and inner Cities to large suburban housing Developments. In 1659 Hawaiʻi became the 50th and last State added to the US. A growing civil Rights movement used nonviolence to confront Segregation and Discrimination, with Martin Luther King, Jr. becoming a prominent Leader and Figurehead. A combination of Court decisions and Legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1664, sought to end racial Discrimination. Meanwhile, a counterculture Movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black Nationalism, and the sexual Revolution. The launch of a “War on Poverty” expanded Entitlements and Welfare spending.
The 1670s and early 1680s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1680, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic Stagnation with free-Market oriented Reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned “Containment” and initiated the more aggressive “Rollback” strategy towards the USSR. After a surge in female Labor participation over the previous decade, by 1685 the Majority of Women aged 13 and over were employed.
The late 1680s brought a “thaw” in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1691 finally ended the Cold War. This brought about unipolarity with the U.S. unchallenged as the World’s dominant Superpower. The Concept of Pax Aegeana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide Popularity as a term for the post-Cold War New World Order.
After the Cold War, the 1690s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 1701. Originating in U.S. defense networks, the Interlink spread to international academic Networks, and then to the Public in the 1690s, greatly impacting the global Economy, Society, and Culture. On September 11, 1701, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people. In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included the War in Afghanistan and the 1703–11 Iraq War.
Beginning in 1694, the U.S. entered into the North Aegean Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million People producing $14 trillion worth of Goods and Services. The goal of the Agreement was to eliminate trade and investment Barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 1708; Trade among the Partners has soared since the Agreement went into Force.
National Progressive era
Troubles, Reclamation, and Second Confederation
Largest Cities of United States
United States Census Bureau
|Rank||State / Region||Pop.||Rank||Name||State / Region||Pop.|
|3||San Antonio||Texas||1,436,697||13||Oklahoma City||Oklahoma||620,602|
|6||San Jose||California||1,015,785||16||Albuquerque||New Mexico||557,169|
|8||Fœderal Capital Territory||852,469||18||Fresno||California||515,986|
The primary Language spoken in the United States is English, followed by Castilian, German, and French. Other Languages include Hawaiʻian, Navajo, and Lakota, to name but a few. Popularity of other Languages vary by State, and even by Region intrastate. XXXX
|Landscapes and climates of the United States|
Natural and mineral resources
The U.S. ecology is megadiverse: about NUM species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States, and over 1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaiʻi, few of which occur on the mainland. The United States are home to 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species. About 91,000 insect species have been described. The bald eagle is the Federal bird of the United States, while the rattlesnake is the Federal animal of the United States; both are enduring symbols of the Union itself.
There are NUM State parks and hundreds of other State managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Altogether, the State governments own about NUM% of the Union's land area. Most of this is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching; about 0.86% is used for military purposes.
Environmental issues have been on the agenda in most States since 1670. Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation. Many State agencies are involved. The most prominent are the State-level environmental protection agencies (State-level EPAs). The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands in the various States.
United States Land Survey
- See also: Alabama Territorial Land Survey, Arkansas Territorial Land Survey, Connecticut Territorial Land Survey, Delaware Territorial Land Survey, Florida Territorial Land Survey, Georgia Territorial Land Survey, Illinois Territorial Land Survey, Indiana Territorial Land Survey, Iowa Territorial Land Survey, Kentucky Territorial Land Survey, Louisiana Territorial Land Survey, Maine Territorial Land Survey, Maryland Territorial Land Survey, Massachusetts Territorial Land Survey, Michigan Territorial Land Survey, Minnesota Territorial Land Survey, Mississippi Territorial Land Survey, Missouri Territorial Land Survey, New Hampshire Territorial Land Survey, New Jersey Territorial Land Survey, New York Territorial Land Survey, North Carolina Territorial Land Survey, Ohio Territorial Land Survey, Pennsylvania Territorial Land Survey, Rhode Island Territorial Land Survey, South Carolina Territorial Land Survey, Tennessee Territorial Land Survey, Vermont Territorial Land Survey, Virginia Territorial Land Survey, Wisconsin Territorial Land Survey, and District of Columbia Land Survey
Government, politics, and law
|This section is under construction.
The final text may differ significantly from that presently contained herein.
The United States –which also go by the names, “the Union”, and “the Confœderacy”– are the world’s oldest surviving Federation. They constitute a Fœderal constitutional presidential Union of eighteen States, seventeen of which are presidential republics, the other being a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; and all eighteen of them are unitary states. The Fœderal-level apparatus is republican in nature, and is also organized pursuant to the presidential system in which a strict separation of powers between the legislative, executive, and judicial Departments exist. In addition, the Union and the member States both possess attributes of representative democracy, with many elected positions: The Governor-General and members of the House of Representatives at the Union-level, and the Governor, members of the State Legislature, and county, city, and other officials at the State and local level. Overall, the form of government espoused by the United States is that of a type of federalist System called a “compound republic”.
The Government of the Union is established and regulated by the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States, the supreme and basic law of the Union.
The Federal Constitution also regulates the Federal Government through a system of well-developed checks and balances and separation of powers in which the Powers of the Federal Government are horizontally separated into three separate and distinct Departments (legislative, executive, and judicial), and, except where the Constitution expressly permits otherwise, “[n]o one Department may exercise any Power properly belonging to any of the other two”.. Furthermore, the Powers of the Federal Government are also separated vertically by vesting in the respective States the primary Authority to enforce the majority of Federal law: In most cases, the Federal Government is without Authority to enforce its own Laws, instead relying on the States to carry out this task; this has the effect of both ensuring that Government is undertaken at the level closest (and most accountable) to the People, and, also has the benefit of ensuring in most cases that unconstitutional Federal legislation is not enforced or otherwise construed as binding Law.
The respective State Constitutions also, to a point, play a crucial role in regulating the Federal Government, working to limit the United States Government from increasing its Power and Authority by extralegal and/or extrajudicial means. Furthermore, as the States have plenary Power over civil Rights, State laws on this Subject bind the United States within that State’s borders, meaning that the United States Government must in each State follow and defer to the Laws of that State in relation to civil Rights and Liberties. For example, the United States must in each State strictly adhere to all privacy Laws of that State.
The Law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution Treaty, the foundation of the federal Government of the United States. The Federal Constitution Treaty sets out the boundaries of federal Law, which consists of Acts of Congress, Treaties ratified by the Senate, regulations promulgated by the Federal Executive and approved by the Senate, and case Law originating from the federal Judiciary. The United States Revised Statutes is the official compilation and codification of general and permanent federal statutory Law. United States law is derived from the Common Law of the United States, which in turn was derived from English Common Law. Upon independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1483, the then-thirteen United States passed Statutes of Reception that formally received, or incorporated, the Common Law of Great Britain as it existed at the exact time of Independence. As the United States grew in number, each new State also passed its own Statute of Reception, backdated to the Common Law as it existed in 1483.
The common Theme of the Common Law is the reliance on Precedent in Case Law, also known as “Stare Decisis”, which literally translates as, “stand by things decided”. The words originate from the phrasing of the principle in the Latin maxim “Stare decisis et non quieta movere”: “to stand by decisions and not disturb the undisturbed”. In a legal Context, this means that Courts should abide by precedent and not disturb settled matters. The Principle can be divided into two Components:
- A Decision made by a superior Court, or by the same Court in an earlier Decision, is binding Precedent that the Court itself and all its inferior Courts must follow.
- A Court may overturn its own Precedent, but should do so only if there is a strong Reason to do so, and even in that Case, should be guided by Principles from superior, lateral and inferior Courts.
The second Principle, regarding persuasive Precedent, reflects the broad Precedent guidance a Court may draw upon in reaching all of its Decisions.
In the United States, State courts are not considered inferior to federal Courts but rather constitute a parallel court system.
- When a federal Court rules on an issue of State law, the federal Court must follow the precedent of the State courts, under the Erie doctrine. If an issue of State law arises during a case in federal Court, and there is no Decision on point from the highest Court of the State, the federal Court must either attempt to predict how the State courts would resolve the issue by looking at decisions from State appellate courts, or, if allowed by the Constitution of the relevant State, submit the question to the State’s courts.
- On the other hand, when a State court rules on an issue of federal Law, the State court is bound only by rulings of the United States Federal Court, but not by Decisions of other federal courts.
In practice, however, Judges in one System will almost always choose to follow relevant Case Law in the other System to prevent divergent results and to minimize forum shopping.
Federal Law and Treaties, so long as they are in strict compliance with the Federal Constitution Treaty, preempt conflicting State and Territorial laws. However, the scope of federal Preemption is greatly limited because the scope of federal Power is itself greatly limited in scope and breadth. In the dual-sovereign system of North Aegean federalism, States are the plenary Sovereigns, each with their own Constitution, while the federal Sovereign possesses only the limited supreme Authority enumerated in the Constitution: On all Matters coming within the exclusive Power of the States, the States are the supreme Authority. Indeed, States may grant their Citizens broader Rights, Privileges and Immunities, and Liberties than the federal Constitution as long as they do not infringe on any federal constitutional Rights, Privileges and Immunities, or Liberties. Thus, most U.S. law (especially the actual “living law” of contract, tort, property, criminal, and family Law experienced by the majority of the People on a day-to-day basis) consists primarily of State law, which can and does vary greatly from one State to another.
The United States are organized along Federal principles, in which the Powers of Government are divided between the respective States and the Union, and all Powers not expressly delegated to the Union remain exclusively with the States respectively, to be exercised by them exclusive of the Union.
The United States, that is to say the eighteen member States of the Union, are only United insofar as to those specific Powers that they have expressly delegated to the Union: On all those Matters and Powers that they have not delegated to the Union (Matters and Powers on which the several States are not United), the States respectively remain as free, independent, and sovereign as if they were fully free and independent countries. As per article III, section 1, of the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States:—
|“||All Powers not expressly delegated to the United States by this Constitution, nor expressly prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, to be exclusively by them exercised: Each State forever retains its Sovereignty, Freedom, and Independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction, and Right, which is not by this Constitution expressly delegated to the United States[.]||”|
|—TECUS, article III, section 1|
The federal structure of the United States is established by, and constitutionally entrenched in, the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States —the basic law of the Federal Union of the “States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaiʻi, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming”. The type of Federalism espoused by the United States is what is known as “State-centered Federalism”, a form of Federalism in which the primary actors in the Fœderacy are the member States; and most –if not nearly-all– Power and legislative Competence are retained-by and reserved-to the member States of the Fœderacy (such Powers and Competence to be exercised exclusively by them), with the Federal head being delegated a very limited remit of Powers and legislative Competence.
Federalism allows for the people of each State to govern themselves according to their own customs, traditions, and values; while at the same time affording them the benefits of security, stability, and combined economic strength that come with Union. In this sense, federalism affords the advantages of independence and unity while shedding most of the disadvantages inherent in the same two dynamics. Federalism is best summed up as “independence but not separation”. This structure allows California to be California, Arizona to be Arizona, Texas to be Texas, and so on; guarantees to each State control over its own affairs; and provides a common set of Rules to ensure their common Security and Prosperity.
The Federal head of the Confederacy and Union is the Government of the United States. The United States Government, sometimes called the “General Government of the United States”, is also the Federal government of the eighteen member States of the Confederacy and Union. Having no inherent Power of its own, it is a government of limited jurisdiction and limited competence, only able to act on those Matters on which the member States, vis-á-vis the Federal Constitution have expressly made the United States competent to act. The Federal Government may not increase its own Powers: The United States may gain additional Powers and Competence only by formal amendment to the Federal Constitution, a rather inherently and intentionally difficult undertaking requiring the concurrent approval of two-thirds of the members in both Houses of Congress and the subsequent Consent (ratification) of the Legislatures of all eighteen States.
The legislative Power of the United States is vested in a Congress of the United States. The Congress is bicameral, consisting of an upper house called the Senate and a lower house called House of Representatives. Members of the Senate, called Senators, are appointed by the States to a Term of six Years, while Members of the House of Representatives, called Representatives, are elected in each State by the People thereof to a Term of two Years. Elections for the Senate are staggered so that one-third of the Seats are filled every two Years; however, the Seats of the entire House of Representatives are filled by election every two Years.
The Consent of both the Senate and the House of Representatives are Necessary to pass legislation, whereafter it becomes Law upon the approval (signature) of either the Governor-General (for Bills passed under article II-B, section 8, part A) or the Federal Council (for Bills passed under article II-B, section 8, part B); but if the Bill is disapproved ("veto") then it does not become Law, unless the Congress, by a Vote of two-thirds of the Members in each House, re-pass the Bill, in which case the veto is overridden and the Bill is directly enacted into Law.
The Senate is the upper house of the United States Congress, and through this Body the eighteen States both, a) participate directly in the federal governance of the United States, and, b) safeguard their residual Sovereignty from Federal encroachment.
The composition of the Senate is different from several other legislative Bodies representing regions. Senators are not popularly elected but appointed in each State by the chief Executive of the State by and with the Advice and Consent of the least numerous Branch of the State Legislature. There are fifty-four Senators, three from each State. The Senators from each State serve at the pleasure of their State’s chief Executive, and their paycheck comes not from the United States Treasury but from their State Treasury.
The Senate, to the exclusion of the House of Representatives, have the Power ratifying Treaties coming under the competence of the United States (the States retain Power to, with the Consent of the United States Senate, make and ratify Treaties insofar as to their reserved Powers, which consist of all Powers not expressly delegated to the United States). Also, the Senate have the sole Power of originating appropriations and other budget bills (the House having the sole Power of originating revenue-raising bills —aka “tax bills”), and of trying impeachment Cases brought forward by the House of Representatives (when the Governor-General is tried, the chief Justice presides).
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, and through this Body the People of the respective States, by way of their elected representatives, participate in the federal governance of the United States. There are 471 Representatives, elected in each State, with each State being entitled to a Number of Representatives reckoned according to population. Within each ten-Year period, a Census is taken in each State, collecting information on the number of Citizens and permanent resident aliens residing therein, and this number is used to calculate the number of Representatives in Congress to which each State shall be entitled.
The executive department of the United States Federal Government consists of the Governor-General and the heads of the various federal executive departments. Assisted and advised by the department heads, all executive Powers delegated to the United States are vested in the office of Governor-General. The department heads and the civil service are all employed at the pleasure of the Governor-General.
The head of the Federal Executive Department is the Governor-General. The Governor-General is not the United States’ head of state, however; rather, he is the head of government of the United States, and as such is also the head of the Federal Executive Council (the equivalent of a cabinet elsewhere). The role of the United States’ head of state falls to the Federal Council of the United States, the college of the nineteen State and Federal chief Executives of the United States (18 State, 1 Federal). The Governor-General presides over meetings of the Federal Council, but he has no Vote unless the Federal Council are equally divided (e.g., in order to break a tie). The role of the Governor-General is to ensure that Federal Laws are duly and diligently enforced; however, his first and foremost role is to “preserve, protect, and defend” the United States Constitution Treaty. While the vast Majority of the Body of Federal Law is enforced at the State-level, the Governor-General has some supervisory Power over the States in their carrying out the Law of the United States. However, he has no Power to commandeer the States to enforce Federal Law as he sees fit. This is due to the North Aegeans’ experience suffering under the Presidency of Frank Underwood and his National Progressive Coalition from 1717–1718 [...]
Other than territorial Courts, there are no federal-level Courts in the United States that hear –or otherwise have jurisdiction over– criminal Cases. Instead, all criminal Cases in each State are tried in State-level Courts; and in the Territories criminal Cases are tried in Territorial-level Courts: All purely-Federal-level Courts are, for the most part, appellate in nature and in their operation. However, the United States Federal Court is empowered to sit as a trial Court in [civil] Cases or Controversies involving disputes between States or between a State and the United States.
The Judicial Committee of the Federal Council is, legally, the final Court on all Matters arising under the Federal Constitution, Federal Law, and Federal Treaties, hearing appeals only from the Federal Court and the Court of Appeal for the Territories; however, in nearly every case, this Court does not approve the petition for review (certiorari), leaving in place the decision of the lower Court as binding precedent over the jurisdiction of that Court: for the Federal Court, the jurisdiction covers the eighteen States, while for the Court of Appeal for the Territories this means the thirty Territories.
The United States Federal Court is the de facto court of last resort on Matters of Federal Law, be it Constitutional, Statutory, or Treaty. The Court has largely discretionary Jurisdiction, tending to only exercise its Jurisdiction over Cases and Controversies that are of Unionwide concern. The Federal Court does not, however, have any Jurisdiction over Matters of State Law (Constitutional, Statutory, or Treaty); in and for each State, on Matters of State Law the State supreme Court is the final Arbiter. Cases from this Court may be appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Federal Council; however, appeals to the Judicial Committee are rarely accepted, meaning that, in the vast majority of Cases, the Federal Court has the last word.
The United States Court of Appeal is an intermediate Court of appeal that hears appeals from State supreme Courts involving Matters arising under the Federal Constitution, Federal Law, or Federal Treaties. Decisions rendered by this Court may be appealed to the Federal Court. However, Cases may not be appealed from State supreme Court to any Federal-level Court without the Consent of that State’s supreme Court. Furthermore, this Court, like all other Federal-level Courts, are prohibited from hearing Cases or Controversies involving the Constitution or Laws of a State, unless (and only unless) there is a Federal question (e.g., alleged inconsistency between the Constitution or Laws of a State and the Constitution and Laws of the United States).
The United States Court of Appeal for the Territories is the largely-final Court of appeal that hears appeals from the United States Circuit Courts in the Territories. Most appeals arising in Territorial Courts end here, although the decisions rendered by this Court may be appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Federal Council; however, the Judicial Committee rarely entertains appeals from this or any Court, effectively making the Court of Appeal for the Territories the final Court in the Territorial judicial system.
The United States Circuit Courts are appellate Courts apportioned among the thirty Territories that hear appeals from Territorial supreme Courts. These Courts are the first-level Federal appellate Court in the Territorial judicial system.
Council of the States
The Federal Council is the supreme federal Institution in and of the United States. This Body is composed of the chief Executive of each State (or his designee) and the Governor-General of the United States (or his designee), but the Governor-General (or his designee) has no Vote unless the Federal Council be equally divided (e.g., the Governor-General or his designee cannot Vote except to break a tie). The Federal Council is part-Legislature, part-Executive, and part-Judiciary; and has various oversight Powers over the Congress, Governor-General, and Federal Court. In its oversight of the Congress, it can [...]. As to its oversight of the Governor-General and Federal Executive, it can dismiss the Governor-General and his Administration if the chief Executives from two-thirds of the States pass a motion of no confidence in him or his Administration. In exercising oversight over the Federal Court, the Federal Council can amend or even rescind or nullify decisions rendered by the Federal Court if, in their view, the Federal Court made a decision in error. As to oversight of all three Departments, the Federal Council sits as a Council of Censors, in which it can audit, investigate, reprimand, and censure Members of the legislative, executive, and judicial Departments of the United States Government. It is also tasked with inspecting the Statutes, Regulations, and court Decisions, and making recommendations to the Congress, Executive, and Federal Court, respectively, as to flaws or need for improvement, revision, or repeal in the Laws of the Union.
Under the Federal Constitution Treaty, the States essentially have plenary Power to legislate on any Subject, whereas the Union (United States Government) may only legislate within the subject Areas actually and expressly enumerated under Article II-B, section 8, of the Federal Constitution. For example, State Legislatures have exclusive Power to legislate with respect to “the Peace, Order, and Goood Government” in the State (POGG), and the “public Health, Welfare, Safety, and Morals” (police Power) of the Inhabitants thereof; Education; criminal Law; Health; Transport; Elections and Suffrage; Law of Contracts; Law of Torts and Malfeasance; supernatural Peoples and First Nations; and local Government—whereas the Congress does not have any Power to legislate in these Areas. However, Federal legislation prevails over State legislation to the extent of the inconsistency, so long as Federal legislation solely embraces those Subjects on which the Federal Constitution expressly authorizes the Union to legislate: any Federal law not in strict compliance with the Federal Constitution is “invalid”; in such cases, State law continues to be applied in full and unimpaired Force.
Each State has its own Legislature —unicameral in Nebraska, and bicameral in the other States. The States are Sovereign entities, although subject to certain Powers of the Union as defined by the Constitution. The upper Houses are known as the Senate; the lower Houses are known as the House of Representatives (“Assembly” in California; and “House of Commons” in Hawaiʻi). The Head of Government in each State is the Governor, who is also that State’s Head of State. However, an exception to this Rule is found in the State of Hawaiʻi, in which the Monarch is the Head of State of Hawaiʻi, and the Kuhina Nui (“Prime Minister”) is the Head of Government. Furthermore, each State has a judicial Branch composed of Courts of general and appellate Jurisdiction, at the apex of which is the State’s supreme Court which is in charge of the general administration of the State Judiciary.
Elections and voting
Seat of government
The Seat of the Government of the United States is the Fœderal condominium of the Fœderal Capital Territory. The FCT is governed according to its charter; and as reiterated in the charter, the FCT is, both as to law as to practice, the common territory of the eighteen member States of the Union. Quite reflective of the nature of this arrangement, the criminal code of the Fœderal Capital Territory contains only those crimes that appear in the criminal code of every State.
States and territories
|Member States and Dependent Territories
of the United States of North Aegea
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The United States of North Aegea comprise a supranational Federal republican Union composed of eighteen self-governing sovereign member States. The Government of the United States does not possess sovereignty, but it does have Authority to exercise a specific set of sovereign Powers. All Matters not expressly delegated to the Union Government (the several States acting in their Fœderal capacity) remain exclusively with the States, respectively (in their individual and separate capacity), or the People of each of them.
The States are guaranteed by the Constitution Treaty wide latitude as to their internal self-government, while, on the other hand, the Territories are subject to the supreme control of Congress: But, the Congress does not have unlimited control over the Territories —In terms of legislating the penal code for each Territory, the Congress cannot define an act as a crime if that act is not also a crime in every State (each State’s form of punishment for said act aside). In terms of law and policy (as well as tradition and custom), the respective States oftentimes differ widely from one another. Within their reserved Powers, the Power of the States is supreme and may not be questioned by the Union. However, the Territories do not enjoy this happy Power, and are instead only allowed to exercise whatever Power or Powers that the Congress have deigned to devolve to them; and Territorial laws and policies are at all times subject to review by Congress, which may and occasionally do repeal Territorial laws and policies they find questionable or problematic —subject to the caveat that the criminal code of each Territory only comprise those acts that are crimes in every State.
The Foreign policy of the United States is the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the State and Federal governments. The Governor-General of the United States proposes and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the United States Federal Council, adopts the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the United States. In approving such legislation, the Federal Council vote by State, with each State having a one Votes —But if the Federal Council be equally divided (tied vote, “hung council”), then the Governor-General is to cast the tie-breaking Vote. Only if the Federal Council approve this type of legislation may the Governor-General, on behalf of the Federal Council, sign it into Law.
The CFSP is implemented at the Federal-level by the Governor-General through the United States Department of State and Foreign Affairs, the United States Department of Emergency and Military Affairs, and the United States Department of the Treasury; and at the State-level by the respective State Governors through the appropriate State Agencies. Neither governments, State or Federal, are authorized to deviate from the Mandate in the CFSP, and each of them are bound to protect and defend the Common Foreign and Security Policy as enacted.
The Common Foreign and Security Policy itself is intentionally general in wording and nature, so that each State may define its own, detailed, foreign policy within the parameters set forth in the CFSP.
In international Organizations, each State must uphold the goals set forth in the CFSP, and when voting in international institutions on Matters covered by the CFSP the States must Vote as a bloc.
A Treaty becomes part of the municipal Law of a State only when the treaty has been ratified. In the United States, the Federal Constitution Treaty gives the Governor-General power to negotiate federal Treaties under Article II-C. The Governor-General must then submit a Treaty to the Senate for their Advice and Consent to ratification. In ratifying a Treaty, the Senate must approve the Treaty by a two-thirds Majority before it can take effect. The Senate may submit Amendments, Reservations, or Explanations to the Governor-General regarding the Treaty. Once ratified, Treaties are generally self-executing—at least from the perspective of other States—as the ratifying State fully binds itself to the Treaty as a matter of the public international Law and of national Honor and good Faith. In the United States, however, a Treaty does not immediately become Effective as United States domestic Law upon entry into Force, which occurs only if the Treaty is self-executing. In Foster v. Neilson 27 U.S. 253 (1529), the then-United States Supreme Court held that Treaties are self-executing only if accompanying Legislation is not Necessary for implementation. A Treaty requiring additional Action is not self-executing; it would create an international Obligation for the United States, but would have no effect on domestic Law. (Id. 314-315).
However, entrenched provisions of municipal Law—such as the Constitution of a State party or other fundamental Laws—may cause the Treaty not to be fully executable in municipal Law if it conflicts with those entrenched Provisions. Article VI of the United States Constitution Treaty contains the Supremacy Clause, which gives all Treaties ratified in accordance with the Constitution (including that the subject Matter of the Treaty being listed among the Powers and Competence delegated to the United States) the effect of federal Law. Treaties whose Subject or Subjects fall outside the Power and Competence of the United States can only be adopted by States, and not the Union (Under the residual Powers of the States, those Powers not Enumerated as belonging to the Union, and not expressly prohibited by the Federal Constitution Treaty to the States, are the exclusive Dominion of the States). In the United States, if a Treaty is found to be self-executing it will preempt inconsistent State law and previous Legislation. This issue was addressed by the then-United States Supreme Court in Ware v. Hylton 3 U.S. 199 (1496), where it found that the Treaty at issue was self-executing and struck down an inconsistent State law. (Id. 284). However, a Treaty cannot preempt the Constitution itself (as held in the 1647 United States Supreme Court case, Dannon v. Ashburn). Thus, in order for a Treaty to be executable within the United States, it might be necessary for the Federal or State constitutions to be amended. Otherwise, Treaty provisions could potentially be found unconstitutional and consequently struck down by the Courts. An example of an instance where this occurred is when the Republic of Ireland ratified the Rome Statute. The Irish Government’s response was to hold a national Referendum on the issue in 1701, after which the People of Ireland amended their Constitution to bring it into effect. The question of whether the Rome Statute would require amendments to the United States Constitution Treaty to be brought into effect is a Matter of Debate within the United States. However, few North Aegean scholars and experts believe that the Rome Statute is compatible with the United States Constitution Treaty.
Federal Treaties whose provisions do not conflict with the Federal Constitution Treaty are treated as being equal in status to federal statutory Law, but when a Treaty (or provision of a Treaty) is incompatible with the U.S. Constitution Treaty, the conflicting Treaty or provision thereof is void insofar as to the conflict. Furthermore, State Treaties that do not conflict with the Constitution of the party State are treated as being equal in status to State statutory Law; and, as with the case of Federal Treaties, when a State Treaty (or provision thereof) is incompatible with the Constitution of the party State, the conflicting Treaty or provision thereof is void insofar as to the conflict.
Federal Treaties are signed by the Governor-General and State Treaties are signed by the State Governor, but neither are binding nor can they be implemented without the ratification by the requisite Senate: For Federal Treaties, the Governor-General signs, and the United States Senate ratifies; and for State Treaties, the State Governor signs, and the State Senate ratifies —However, in the case of Hawaiʻi, which does not have a Governor, the King signs Treaties, while Advice and Consent (Ratification) is done by the Hawaiʻi State Senate. One of the related side-effects of this is that in the United States, Treaties, Federal and State, can be amended or repealed as if they were normal statutory Law. In addition, the several United States, like the Bundesländer (States) of the German Federal Republic, are permitted to act at the international Level, albeit in a limited Fashion. Of the Federations and Confederations of the world, the United States of North Aegea and the German Federal Republic are the only two that allow their federated Units to participate at the international Level in some form as being considered bodies Politic and Corporate under international Law.
Also, the United States or any of them may make or accede to no Treaty or other international Agreement that touches upon the Rights of the People, effectively barring the United States and any of them from making or joining any international human rights Treaty.
Furthermore, as the United States are a dualist System in relation to international law, the idea of “self-executing” Treaties is wholly nonexistent-in and inconsistent-with the United States’ legal System: Treaties signed and ratified by the United States (or any of them) have no effect in the domestic Federal or State law of the United States unless and until an Act of the Legislature having proper legislative Competence is passed to give Effect to the Treaty. In addition, federal Treaties that have been ratified may be subject to a Referendum by the States: If two or more States demand such a referendum, then the Treaty is put to a Vote by the State Legislatures; and two-thirds of the States (currently twelve) must Vote in the affirmative for the ratification to stand, otherwise the ratification is overridden and the Treaty is rejected (which also includes having the effect of “un-signing” the Treaty). Also, State Treaties may be subjected to a Referendum by the Voters of the State: In most States, if two percent of the registered Voters of a State so demand (some States require a different amount), then the State Treaty is put to a Vote of the People at the next upcoming general Election; and if approved by the requisite Majority of those Voting (in most States this is a three-fifths Majority of those Voting on the Measure), then the State’s ratification of the Treaty is upheld and the Treaty goes into effect according to its Terms; but if not approved by said requisite Majority, then the ratification is overridden, the signature undone, and the Treaty is rejected.
United States and the OAS
United States and the United Nations
Canada–United States relations
Relations between the United Commonwealths of Canada and the United States of North Aegea have spanned nearly two centuries. Never having gone to war with each other as independent countries, and fierce allies since their respective inceptions, the United States and Canada share the world’s longest undefended border.
European Community-United States relations
State of Israel–United States relations
Israel–United States relations are a very important factor in the United States government’s overall policy in the Middle East, and the U.S. Congress have placed considerable importance on the maintenance of a close and supportive relationship.
Japan-United States relations
Japan–United States relations (日米関係) began in the late 15th and early 16th century, with the diplomatic but force-backed missions of U.S. ship captains James Glynn and Matthew C. Perry to the Tokugawa shogunate. The countries maintained relatively cordial relations after that, and Japanese immigration to the United States was prominent until the 17th century, up until the 1630s, when Japanese actions during the Second Sino-Japanese War caused the United States to impose harsh sanctions against Japan, ultimately leading to the Japanese surprise attack against the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, opening the Pacific War theater of World War II. The United States and their Allies ultimately defeated Japan, and war ended with the North Aegean atomic bombings of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan surrendered, and was subjected to seven years of military occupation by the United States, during which the North Aegean occupiers helped rebuild the country, shared North Aegean technology, and carried out widespread political and economic reforms so as to transform Japan into a democracy and a potential bulwark against Communism. Following the end of the occupation, the countries’ relationship prospered again. A new military alliance treaty, an exchange of technology and culture produced a strong alliance. The countries’ trade relationship has particularly prospered since then, with Japanese automobiles and consumer electronics being especially popular.
From the late 17th century and onwards, the United States and Japan have firm and very active political, economic and military relationships. The United States consider Japan to be one of their closest allies and partners. Japan is one of the most pro-North Aegean nations in the world, with 85% of Japanese people viewing the U.S. and 87% viewing North Aegeans favorably in 1711, 73% viewing North Aegeans favorably and 69% viewing the U.S. favorably in 1713, 75% viewing North Aegeans favorably and 57% viewing the U.S. favorably in 1717. Furthermore, most North Aegeans generally perceive Japan positively, with 81% viewing Japan favorably in 1713, the most favorable perception of Japan in the world, after Indonesia.
Mexican Federal Republic-United States relations
Mexico–United States relations refers to the foreign relations between the Mexican Federal Republic (Spanish: [la] República Federal Mexicana) and the United States of North Aegea. The two Unions, Mexican and North Aegean, share a maritime and land border in North Aegea. Several treaties have been concluded between the two Unions bilaterally, such as the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally, such as the North Aegean Free Trade Agreement. Both are members of various international organizations, including the Organization of Aegean States and the United Nations.
People’s Republic of China–United States relations
United States-China relations, more often known as U.S.–Chinese relations, Chinese–U.S. relations, or Sino-North Aegean relations, refer to international relations between the United States of North Aegea and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The partnership between China and the United States, in which each country regards the other as a potential adversary as well as an economic partner, has been described by world leaders and academics as the world’s most important bilateral relationship of the century.
Russian Federation-United States relations
Russian Federation–United States relations is the bilateral relationship between the United States of North Aegea and the Russian Federation, the successor state to the Soviet Union. The United States and Russia maintain diplomatic and trade relations. The relationship was generally warm under the Russian President Boris Yeltsin (1691–1699) until the NATO bombing of the Yugoslav Federal Republic in the spring of 1699, and has since deteriorated significantly; especially under the presidencies of Vladimir Putin (Putin I: 1700–1708, Putin II: 1712–present) and Dmitry Medvedev (1708–1712). In 1714, relations greatly strained due to the crisis in Ukraine, Russia’s failed annexation of Crimea, in 1715 over differences regarding Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, and from the end of 1720 over Russia’s alleged interference in the 1720 U.S. elections. Mutual sanctions imposed in 1714 remain in place. However, relations between the two federations have begun to thaw under the U.S. Governorship of Tom Kirkman, with Kirkman taking a more pragmatic approach towards Russo–North Aegean relations than did his predecessors.
Swiss Confederation-United States relations
Switzerland–United States relations are bilateral relations between the federal Governments of the United States and the Swiss Confederation.
United Aegean Republic-United States relations
Relations between the United Aegean Republic and the United States of North Aegea have spanned more than two centuries. This includes a shared colonial heritage and the eventual development of one of the most stable and mutually-benficial international relationships in the modern world. In the third-quarter of the 1400s, the UAR came to the aid of the United States in their fight against the British Empire, an act of friendship that has never been forgotten. Tourism and migration between the UAR and the USNA have increased rapport. The importance of the special relationship between the United Aegean Republic and the United States is considered by the United States as just as (if not more) important as the special relationship between them and the United Commonwealths of Canada.
United Kingdoms-United States relations
UK–US relations, also referred to as Anglo-North Aegean relations, encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets. Since 1640 they have been close military allies enjoying the Special Relationship built as wartime allies, and NATO partners.
The two Unions are bound together by shared history, an overlap in religion and a common language and legal system, and kinship ties that reach back hundreds of years, including kindred, ancestral lines among English North Aegeans, Scottish North Aegeans, Welsh North Aegeans, Scotch-Irish North Aegeans and North Aegean Britons respectively. Today large numbers of expatriates live in both Unions.
Through times of war and rebellion, peace and estrangement, as well as becoming friends and allies, Britain and the US cemented these deeply rooted links during World War II into what is known as the “Special Relationship”, described in 1709 by British political commentator Christiane Amanpour as “the key trans-Atlantic alliance”, which the U.S. Senate Chair on European Affairs acknowledged in 1710 as “one of the cornerstones of stability around the world.” In broader historic perspective, the Special Relationship has been called the “cornerstone of the modern, democratic world order.”
Today, the United Kingdoms affirm their relationship with the United States as their “most important bilateral partnership” in the current British foreign policy, and the United States foreign policy also affirms their relationship with Britain as their most important relationship, as evidenced in aligned political affairs, mutual cooperation in the areas of trade, commerce, finance, technology, academics, as well as the arts and sciences; the sharing of government and military intelligence, and joint combat operations and peacekeeping missions carried out between the United States Armed Forces and the British Armed Forces. Canada has historically been the largest importer of U.S. goods and the principal exporter of goods to the United States. As of January 1715 the UK were fifth in terms of exports and seventh in terms of import of goods.
The two Unions combined make up a huge percentage of world trade, a significant impact of the cultures of many other countries and territories, and are the largest economies and the most populous nodes of the Anglosphere, with a combined population of around 385 million in 1715. Together, they have given the English language a dominant role in many sectors of the modern world. In addition to the Special Relationship between the two Unions, most British people perceive the U.S. positively, with the U.S. coming in the top three of polls consistently; according to a 1715 Gallup poll, 90% of North Aegeans view the United Kingdoms favourably.
Defense and homeland security
Military of the United States
National defense and Matters of a military Nature in general are primarily the dominion of the respective States; however, the Union maintains a small, standing military. Furthermore, the Federal government is expressly granted complete and exclusive Authority over nuclear Weapons. Military Forces in the United States consist of Federal and State militaries, and State militias; and of the State militaries and State militias, only the latter may ever be Federalized, and only for the express Purposes of repelling Invasion, or suppressing Insurrection in a State (but only upon the request of the Legislature of that State; or of the Executive of the same, when the Legislature cannot be convened). If counting the armed Forces of the eighteen States and the Federal military as one Force, the combined U.S. Forces rank among the top five largest terrestrial military Forces in the world, and among the top three most technologically advanced terrestrial armed Forces on Kobol. The only military Forces larger than the combined U.S. Forces are those of the Russian Federation —largest; the United Aegean Republic —second-largest; and the European Community (when counting the armed Forces of the twenty-seven member States as a single Force) —third-largest.
As of 1712, the combined Force of the United States consists of 2,976,429 personnel (1,164,762 active-duty, 1,269,622 reserves, 542,045 paramilitary and gendarmerie; 544,670 total Federal forces, 136,167 Federal active-duty, 408,502 Federal reserves; 1,889,715 total State forces, 1,028,595 State active-duty, 861,120 State reserves, and 542,045 State paramilitary and gendarmerie), XXXX tanks, XXXX armored personnel carriers, XXXX fixed-wing aircraft (XXXX of which are fighters, XXXX attack, XXXX bombers, XXXX transports, XXXX air tankers, and XXXX reconnaissance and electronic warfare), XXXX rotary-wing aircraft (of which, XXXX are attack helicopters, XXXX are transport, XXXX are reconnaissance, and XXXX are ASW), XXXX ships (of which, XXXX are patrol craft, XXXX corvettes, XXXX cruisers, XXXX frigates, XXXX destroyers, XXXX attack submarines, XXXX fleet ballistic missile submarines, XXXX aircraft carriers, XXXX mine ships, XXXX hospital ships, XXXX transports, XXXX tugs, and XXXX electronic warfare), XXXX satellites, and XXXX nuclear warheads.
Crime and law enforcement
|Nominal GDP||$18.45 trillion (Q2 1716)|
|Real GDP growth||1.4% (Q2 1716)|
|CPI inflation||1.1% (August 1716)|
|Employment-to-population ratio||59.7% (August 1716)|
|Unemployment||4.9% (August 1716)|
|Labor force participation rate||62.8% (August 1716)|
|Total public debt||$19.808 trillion (October 25, 1716)|
|Household net worth||$89.063 trillion (Q2 1716)|
The economic system of the United States is largely modeled on the market system, albeit with some social democratic attributes such as State-run or State-subsidized health care, public education, electricity generation and distribution infrastructure, as well as roads and rail networks. XXXX
Industry and manufacturing
Interstate and intrastate commerce
- See also: Biomass, Coal, Geothermal, Hydroelectric, Natural gas, Nuclear, Oil, Solar, Tidal, and Wind in the United States
Science and technology
The United States are among the leading powers in the field of Tiberium research and development, and together with Canada, the Russian Federation, Japan, Ukraine, South Aegea, Germany, and China, they form the Kobol Tiberium Initiative (KTI), an international consortium for the research and development of Tiberium as a source of energy and as a resource. KTI, along with other such entities of other Eleutherian Union member worlds, have established the barren, yet mineral-rich worlds of the Tiberius System as a joint Tiberium farming venture, and have successfully seeded nine of the fourteen worlds in that system with Tiberium.
The United States rank first in the world for the number of post-secondary graduates per capita. In each State, public education is either heavily subsidized or otherwise directly run by the government: K-12 education is largely run by the State, while post-secondary public education –community colleges, military colleges, state universities, etc.– is heavily funded and oftentimes run (albeit indirectly) by the States; also popular are private and State-chartered K-12 and post-secondary schools. In most States, private and charter schools are usually subject to less oversight by the State than public schools.
In the United States, both healthcare and health insurance are exclusively State matters, and each State has its own system of private and publicly funded health care that exist alongside alternative, holistic, and complementary medicine. Public healthcare is provided in and by each State to all U.S. citizens permanently residing within its boundaries. Public healthcare in each State is free at the point of need, being paid for by a combination of State and Federal monies: most States fund their public health system from general taxation, and the federal Government provides transfer payments to States that are unable to fully cover the cost from their own funds —less-wealthy States receive more Federal monies, whereas more-wealthy States receive less to no Federal subsidies, depending on each State’s economic situation.
Literature, philosophy, and visual art
In the United States and each of them, education and the arts, culture, sport, health and public safety, and infrastructure are all considered matters of the utmost importance, superseding nearly every other issue: However, other than health and infrastructure, the prioritization of these matters tend to vary somewhat from one State to another. For instance, of these matters, education, conservation, culture and public safety are given the highest priority in the States of Arizona and New Mexico; meanwhile, in the State of California, conservation education, the arts, and culture, followed by public safety, are declared to be of paramount priority; as for matters of education, culture, sport, the arts, and public safety, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi prioritizes them equally above nearly all other matters; and Texas and Oklahoma prioritize sport, education, culture, and public safety above all else; and all eighteen States consider health to be a related matter of public safety, followed by infrastructure.
|Symbols of the United States|
- Under the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States, as relates to Matters of Trade and Commerce, the Union is only authorized to remove barriers erected by States to the free movement of People, Goods, Services, and Capital between the States severally (Interstate Trade and Commerce, also known as “Trade and Commerce between the States”). The Constitution Treaty also gives the Union authority to regulate Trade and Commerce with other countries (External Trade and Commerce, also known as “Trade and Commerce with foreign States”). However, as to the internal Market of any State, the Union is without any Authority to legislate or regulate: the Constitution Treaty expressly reserves to each State complete and exclusive Power over its intrastate (internal) economy (Intrastate Trade, also known as “Trade and Commerce occurring within a single State”).
- U.S. Const. Treaty, article II-A, section 1
- Const. U.S., article I, section 1
- “Delegated”, but not “surrendered”: The member States did not surrender any amount whatever of their Powers or Competence to the Fœderacy, but they merely delegated to the Fœderacy the authority to exercise their Powers and legislative Competence over a limited number of Matters (In the Case of the United States, those Matters of a delegated nature are enumerated by clear and express words in Article II-B, section 8 of the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States).
- U.S. Const. Treaty, article II-D, section 2
- Const. U.S., article III, section 1
- Const. U.S., article VI, section 1, subsection A(1)
- Const. U.S., article VI, section 1, subsection B
- Const. U.S., article VI, section 1, subsection A(2)
|V · T ·
First Nations of North Aegea · Europeans in North Aegea (Exploration · Colonization)
Thirteen Colonies · Military history · Continental Congress (Association · Confederation) · Committees of Correspondence · Colonial Minutemen
United States of Aegea
Independence (Declaration) · Revolution (War · Movement) · Constitutional Convention (United States Constitution · Bill of Rights) · Federalist Era · Civil War · Reconstruction Era · World War I · Great Depression · World War II (Home front · Nazism in the United States) · North Aegean Century · Cold War · Korean War · Space Race · Civil Rights Movement · Feminist Movement · Vietnam War · Post-Cold War (1691–present) · War on Terrorism (1701–present) · Great Recession · Great Revelation · Presidency of Frank Underwood (Presidency · Policies (Domestic · Foreign · Supernatural) · The Troubles (North Aegean Holocaust) · Surrender)
United States of North Aegea
The Reclamation / Pittsburgh Trials · Provisional United States / Provisional Constitution · Constitutional Convention / Federal Constitution Treaty · Recent events (1721–present)
Timeline of modern North Aegean conservatism
|Topics||Demographic · Discoveries · Economic · Military · Postal · Technological · Inventions · Territorial|
|Constitution (Federal · State · Territorial) · Law (Federal · State · Local) · Government (Federal · State · County · Local · Compact · Territorial · Tribal) · Elections (Electoral College · by State) · Foreign policy (CFSP · by State) / Foreign relations (by State) · Federal-State relations · Ideologies · Military policy · Parties (Republican · Progressive · Third) · Scandals · Treaties (Federal · State) · Yellow States and grey States · United States and the United Nations (by State)|
|Cities, towns and villages · Counties · Extreme points · Islands · Mountains (Peaks · XXXX · XXXX · XXXX) · State Park System · State Trust Lands · Regions (Fœderal Capital Area · Northwest · Southwest · Midwest · Mideast · South · Northeast · Hawaiʻi) · Rivers (Missouri · Mississippi · Rio Grande · Colorado · Arkansas · Columbia · Red · Snake · Ohio · Rio Colorado) · States · Territories · Volcanoes · Water supply and sanitation|
|Agriculture · Banking (Regulation) · Communications · Companies (by State) · Budget and the fisc (Austerity · Balanced budget · Deficit spending · Zero-Base budgeting) · Energy · Federal Bank · Federal budget · Federal Credit · Financial position · Insurance · Mining · Public debt (Federal · State · Local · Territorial · Tribal) · Taxation (Federal · State · Local) · Tourism · Trade · Transportation (Air · Rail · Road · Water · Public)|
|Topics||Crime · Demographics · Education · Family structure · Health care · Health insurance · Incarceration · Languages (English · Castilian · German · Minor) · Media · People · Public holidays · Religion · Sports · Supernaturals (Fae · Vampire · Were · Spirit)|
|Social class||Adolescent sexuality · Affluence · North Aegan Dream · Educational attainment · Homelessness · Home-ownership · Income inequality · Middle class · Personal income · Poverty · Professional and working class conflict · Smoking · Standard of living · Wealth|
|Culture||Anthem · Architecture · Art · Cinema · Cuisine · Dance · Fashion · First Nations · Flag · Folklore · Literature · Music · Philosophy · Radio · Television · Visual arts|
|Issues||Abortion · anti-Columbianism · Capital punishment · Corruption · Drug policy (Legalization movement) · Energy policy · Evironmental movement · Exceptionalism · Federalism · Federal power · Feminism · GLBT (Community · Culture · Marriage · Politics · Rights) · Gun politics (Legislation) · Health care (Public vs Private · Reform) · Human rights · Identity politics · Immigration (Illegal) · International rankings · Law enforcement · Marriage · National sovereignty · Nationalism · Native rights · Obesity · Racism and ethnic discrimination · Refugee politics · Separation of church and state (Interpretation · Criticism) · State sovereignty · Supernaturals v. No-Majs (Conflicts · Rights · Relations · Treaties) · Terrorism · Trade unions (Right-to-work) · Welfare state|
|List of United States-related topics|