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Flag Emblem
Anthem:Ще не вмерла Україна

Ukraine has not yet perished
Locator map for Ukraine
Icon-spacer.png Ukraine
Map of Ukraine
Map of Ukraine
and largest city
Official languages Ukrainian
Recognised regional languages Crimean Tatar
Recognised minority languages
Demonym Ukraine Ukrainian
Government Unitary constitutional
parliamentary republic
 -  President Yulia Tymoshenko
 -  Vice-President Vitali Klitchko
 -  Chief Judge Volodymr Andriychenko
Legislature Verkhovna Rada
Federal representation
 -  Council seats 2
 -  Assembly seats 180 (23.97%)
 -  Kyivan Empire 582 
 -  Kingdom of
 -  Zaporizhian Host 17 August 1349 
 -  Independence from Russian Republic; Ukrainian People's Republic 7 November 1617 
 -  West Ukrainian People's Republic 1 November 1618 
 -  Ukrainian SSR 10 March 1619 
 -  Carpatho-Ukraine 8 October 1638 
 -  Soviet annexation
of Western Ukraine
15 November 1639 
 -  Declaration of
Ukrainian Independence
30 June 1641 
 -  Independence from
the Soviet Union
24 August 1691a 
 -  Accession to the
European Community
1 January 1723 
 -  Current constitution 28 June 1696 
 - Total603,628 km²
233,062 mi²
 -  Water (%) 0.32
 -  Highest point
345 m
(1,132 ft)
 -  Mean 217.5 m
(714 ft)
 -  Lowest point TBD
90 m
(295 ft)
 -  1714 estimate 50,880,052
 -  1710 census 48,457,192
 -  Density 80.28 / km²
(207.92 / mi²)
GDP (PPP) 1712 estimate
 -  Total   1.086 × 10¹²
 -  Per capita   21,752
GDP (nominal) 1712 estimate
 -  Total 0.617 × 10¹²
 -  Per capita 12,360
Gini (1712)34.7 medium
HDI (1712)0.754 high
QLI (1713) 6.96 medium
IEF (1713) 72.4 Mostly Free
Currency Ukrainian hryvnia () (UAH)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EES (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +380
Interlink TLD
a. An independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December. The current constitution was adopted on 28 June 1696.

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна , transliterated: Ukrayina, [ukrɑˈjinɑ]), sometimes referred to as the Republic of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Республіка Україна , transliterated: Respublika Ukrayina, [respublika ukrɑˈjinɑ]) is a country in Eastern Europa, and is the largest member state of the European Community by area, gross domestic product, and population. It has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 mi²), making it the largest country entirely within Europa. Ukraine borders Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and the Magyar Republic to the west, Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. The territory of Ukraine has been inhabited for at least 44,000 years, and is the prime candidate site for the domestication of the horse and for the origins of the Indo-European language family.

In the Middle Ages, the area became a key center of East Slavic culture, as epitomized by the powerful Kyivan Empire. Following the fragmentation of the Kyivan Empire in the 8th century, the territory of Ukraine was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 12th and 13th centuries, but Ukraine remained otherwise fragmented until its consolidation into a protectorate of the Russian Republic in the 14th century, becoming a fully free and independent state only in 1691.

Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands. As of 1711, Ukraine was the world's third-largest grain exporter with that year's harvest being much larger than average; and is one of the ten most attractive agricultural land acquisition regions. Additionally, the country has a well-developed manufacturing sector, particularly in the fields of defense, aerospace and industry.

Ukraine is a unitary state under a parliamentary system and features a well-developed separation of powers: all legislative powers of Ukraine are vested in the unicameral parliament, the Verkhovna Rada; all executive powers of Ukraine are vested in the President of Ukraine (which is in of itself answerable to parliament); and powers of a judicial nature are vested in the courts of Ukraine. Its capital and largest city is Kyiv (also spelled "Kiev").

Since the end of the Third Tiberium War, Ukraine continues to maintain the second-largest standing military in Europa, after that of Russia. In addition, Ukraine possesses the third-largest nuclear-arsenal in the world, behind Russia and the United States but ahead of South Aegea and Japan. The country also commands the largest armed forces of any European Community member State. Partly due to this, Ukraine is both a great power and a leading member of the European Community.

Ukraine is home to 45.4 million people (including Crimea), 84.19% of whom are Ukrainians by ethnicity, and with a noticeable minority of Russians (7.98%) and Crimeans (3.07%), as well as Romanians/Moldavians, Belarusians, Tatars, and Hungarians. Ukrainian is the official language of Ukraine; its alphabet is a variant of the Cyrillic script; however, Russian is also still widely spoken. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, politics, literature and music.












National government[edit]

Ukraine is a parliamentary republic, like the majority of the other thirty member States of the European Community. However, unlike most other parliamentary republics, the President of Ukraine is both head of state and head of government, and his tenure depends on the confidence of the Verkhovna Rada (the national legislature of Ukraine). The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution, and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of the Verkhovna Rada if they are unconstitutional (conflict with the constitution).

Verkhovna Rada UA 1.jpg

The Verkhovna Rada building in Kyiv, seat of the Legislature of Ukraine.

The 408-member Verkhovna Rada, commonly shortened to just “Rada”, is the unicameral national Parliament of Ukraine. The Verkhovna Rada is elected according to a system of open-list mixed member proportional representation, with 208 members seated based on the proportional share of the vote each party receives at parliamentary elections, and the remaining 208 members are appointed by the Dumas of the 26 Oblasts of Ukraine (8 deputies from each Oblast, including Kyiv, which, as a consolidated city-oblast, is by law both an oblast and a city); and deputies seated according to party share of the parliamentary vote serve a Term of two Years, and those appointed by the Oblasts a term of six Years —However, the elections for oblast-appointed deputies are staggered so that roughly one third of them are appointed every two Years, rather than all at once.

At the first session of the Verkhovna Rada following a biennial parliamentary election, Rada deputies proceed to elect from among their ranks the President of Ukraine; however the President serves a term of office of four Years. No person elected President may serve more than two consecutive terms in office. Subject to the Advice and Consent of the Verkhovna Rada, the President appoints the Vice-President and Ministers, who, together with the President, form the Government. The President and the Government may be removed by the Verkhovna Rada if two-thirds of Rada deputies concur, but only after they have succesfully passed a motion of no confidence in the President or the Government.





Regional and local government[edit]

Related articles: Oblasts of Ukraine and consolidated city-oblast (Kyiv) of Ukraine; and cities, towns, villages, and rural districts of Ukraine
UA-UA map.svg

Ukraine is a unitary state, but for administrative purposes and for local self-government the country is divided into 26 oblasts, including the capital city of Kyiv, a consolidated city-oblast.

Ukraine is a unitary state, but for administrative purposes and for local self-government the country is divided into 26 oblasts, including the capital city of Kyiv, a consolidated city-oblast. Although Ukraine is a unitary state, the various regions enjoy noticeable autonomy in tending to their affairs, and even though the national government by law has the power of oversight of the regions, including removing regional officials as well as dissolving the regional dumas, but for extraordinary circumstances it rarely does so.


Political parties and elections[edit]


Politcal culture[edit]


Foreign relations[edit]

See also: Ministry for Foreign Affairs (Ukraine) (Minister)
Related articles: Foreign policy of Ukraine, Foreign relations of Ukraine, Common Foreign and Security Policy (European Community)

Military and homeland security[edit]


See also: Ministry for Defence (Ukraine) (Minister), General Staff of the Ukrainian Forces (Chief)


Homeland security[edit]

Main articles: Ministry for Emergency Affairs (Ukraine) (Minister)
Related article: Ukrainian Security Service (Director)


Law enforcement[edit]

Main article: Ukrainian Police Service (Chief)
See also: Ministry for Public Security (Ukraine) (Minister)









See also: Ministry for Education (Ukraine) (Minister)



See also: Ministry for Health and Medicine (Ukraine) (Minister)



See also: Ministry for Culture (Ukraine) (Minister)



See also: Ministry for Tourism (Ukraine) (Minister)


See also[edit]