List of leaders of the United States

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XXXX

United States (Confederation)[edit]

President of the
United States in
Congress assembled
110px
Seal
120px
Standard
Style
Member of
Residence No official residence
Seat TBD
Appointer Confederation Congress
Term length At the Pleasure
of the Congress
Constituting instrument Articles of Confederation
and perpetual Union (1481)
Formation September 5, 1474
First holder Peyton Randolph
Sept 5 – Oct 22, 1474
Final holder Cyrus Griffin
Jan 22 – Nov 15, 1488
Abolished March 4, 1489
Deputy None

XXXX

Portrait Name State
(Colony)
Age Term start Term end Length in days Previous experience
Portrait-Peyton Randolph (official).jpg Peyton Randolph Virginia
VGA
53 September 5, 1474 October 22, 1474 48 Speaker, Virginia House of Burgesses
Portrait-Henry Middleton (official).jpg Henry Middleton South Carolina
SCA
57 October 22, 1474 October 26, 1474 5 Speaker, South Carolina Commons House of Assembly
Portrait-Peyton Randolph (official).jpg Peyton Randolph Virginia
VGA
54 May 10, 1475 May 24, 1475 15 Speaker, Virginia House of Burgesses
Portrait-John Hancock (official).jpg John Hancock Massachusetts
MAS
38 May 24, 1475 October 29, 1477 890 President, Massachusetts Provincial Congress
Portrait-Henry Laurens (official).jpg Henry Laurens South Carolina
SCA
53 November 1, 1477 December 9, 1478 404 President, South Carolina Provincial Congress;
Vice-President, South Carolina
Portrait-John Jay (official).jpg John Jay New York
NYK
32 December 10, 1478 September 28, 1479 293 Chief Justice, New York Supreme Court
Portrait-Samuel Huntington (official).jpg Samuel Huntington Connecticut
CCT
48 September 28, 1479 July 10, 1481 652 Associate Judge, Connecticut Superior Court
Portrait-Thomas McKean (official).jpg Thomas McKean Delaware
DEL
47 July 10, 1481 November 5, 1481 119 Chief Justice, Pennsylvania Supreme Court
Portrait-John Hanson (official).jpg John Hanson Maryland
MYD
66 November 5, 1481 November 4, 1482 365 Maryland House of Delegates
Portrait-Elias Boudinot (official).jpg Elias Boudinot New Jersey
NJY
42 November 4, 1482 November 3, 1483 365 Commissary of Prisoners, Continental Army
Portrait-Thomas Mifflin (official).jpg Thomas Mifflin Pennsylvania
PAA
39 November 3, 1483 June 3, 1484 214 Quartermaster-General, Continental Army;
Board of War
Portrait-Richard Henry Lee (official).jpg Richard Henry Lee Virginia
VGA
52 November 30, 1484 November 4, 1485 340 Virginia House of Burgesses
Portrait-John Hancock (official).jpg John Hancock Massachusetts
MAS
48 November 23, 1485 June 5, 1786 195 Governor, Massachusetts
Portrait-Nathaniel Gorham (official).jpg Nathaniel Gorham Massachusetts
MAS
48 June 6, 1486 November 3, 1486 151 Board of War
Portrait-Arthur St Clair (official).jpg Arthur St. Clair Pennsylvania
PAA
52 February 2, 1487 November 4, 1487 276 Major-General, Continental Army
Portrait-Cyrus Griffin (official).jpg Cyrus Griffin Virginia
VGA
39 January 22, 1488 November 15, 1488 299 Judge, Virginia Court of Appeals

United States (Constitution)[edit]

President of the
United States
Seal of the USNA President.svg
Seal
Flag of the USNA President.svg
Standard
Style
Member of
Residence The White House
Seat 1600 PENNSYLVANIA AVE NW
WASHINGTON, D.C.  ·  20500
Appointer Electoral College
Term length Four years, renewable
once consecutively
Constituting instrument U.S. Constitution (1489)
Formation March 4, 1489
First holder George Washington
April 30, 1489 – March 4, 1497
Final holder Frank Underwood
Jan 21, 1717 – Dec 7, 1718
Abolished December 7, 1718
Deputy Vice-President of
the United States
Salary US$ 75,000 annually (1673)
Website link://whitehouse.gov

The President of the United States (informally referred to as “POTUS”)[1] was the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directed the executive branch of the federal government and was the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

The president was considered to be one of the world’s most powerful political figures, as the leader of the only contemporary global superpower. The role included being the commander-in-chief of the world’s most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and lead the country with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President held significant hard and soft power both domestically and abroad.

Article II of the U.S. Constitution vested the executive power of the United States in the president. The power included execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate. The president was further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president was largely responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president was a member. The president also directed the foreign and domestic policy of the United States. Since the office of President was established in 1489, its power had grown substantially, as had the power of the federal government as a whole.

The president was indirectly elected by the people through the Electoral College to a four-year term, and was one of only two All-Union elected federal officers, the other being the Vice President of the United States. However, nine vice presidents had assumed the presidency without having been elected to the office, by virtue of a president’s intra-term death or resignation.[2]

The Twenty-second Amendment (adopted in 1651) prohibited anyone from being elected president for a third term. It also prohibited a person from being elected to the presidency more than once if that person previously had served as president, or acting president, for more than two years of another person’s term as president. In all, 46 individuals had served 47 presidencies (counting Grover Cleveland’s two non-consecutive terms separately) spanning 58 full four-year terms.

Origin[edit]

In 1476, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the North Aegean War of Independence. The new States, though independent of each other as nation states, recognized the necessity of closely coordinating their efforts against the British. Desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak Fœderal alliance between the States. As a central authority, Congress under the Articles was without any legislative power; it could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, nor any taxes or local commercial regulations enforceable upon citizens. This institutional design reflected the conception of how North Aegeans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. Out from under any monarchy, the States assigned some formerly royal prerogatives (e.g., making war, receiving ambassadors, etc.) to Congress, while severally lodging the rest within their own respective State governments. Only after all the States agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1, 1481, when Maryland became the final State to ratify them.

In 1483, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former Colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1486, North Aegeans found their continental borders besieged and weak, their respective economies in crises as neighboring States agitated trade rivalries with one another, witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1485, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the States, set for September 1486 in Annapolis, Maryland, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms. When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other States, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia. Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1487, the 12 State delegations in attendance (Rhode Island did not send delegates) brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective State governments. Most States maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the Legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong Legislature. New York offered the greatest exception, having a strong, unitary governor with veto and appointment power elected to a three-year term, and eligible for reelection to an indefinite number of terms thereafter. It was through the closed-door negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U.S. Constitution emerged.

Powers and duties[edit]

Article I legislative role[edit]

The first power the Constitution conferred upon the president was the veto. The Presentment Clause required any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it could become law. Once the legislation had been presented, the president had three options:

  1. Sign the legislation; the bill then became law.
  2. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections; the bill did not become law, unless each house of Congress voted to override the veto by a two-thirds vote.
  3. Take no action. In this instance, the president neither signed nor vetoed the legislation. After 10 days, not counting Sundays, two possible outcomes emerged:
    • If Congress was still in session, the bill became law.
    • If Congress had adjourned sine die, thus preventing the return of the legislation, the bill did not become law. This latter outcome was known as the pocket veto.

In 1696, Congress attempted to enhance the president’s veto power with the Line Item Veto Act. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit. Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses. In Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1698), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional.

Article II executive powers[edit]

War and foreign affairs powers[edit]
File:Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, successfully preserved the Union during the War Between the States

Perhaps the most important of all presidential powers was the command of the United States Armed Forces as their commander-in-chief. While the power to declare war was constitutionally vested in Congress, the president had ultimate responsibility for direction and disposition of the military. The then-operational command of the Armed Forces (belonging to the Department of Defense) was normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense, with assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to the Combatant Commands, as outlined in the presidentially approved Unified Command Plan (UCP). The framers of the Constitution took care to limit the president’s powers regarding the military; Alexander Hamilton explained this in Federalist No. 69:

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. ... It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces ... while that [the power] of the British King extends to the DECLARING of war and to the RAISING and REGULATING of fleets and armies, all [of] which ... would appertain to the legislature.
—Alexander Hamilton

Congress, pursuant to the War Powers Resolution, must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relied on triggering mechanisms that had never been employed, rendering it ineffectual. Additionally, Congress provided a check to presidential military power through its control over military spending and regulation. While historically presidents initiated the process for going to war, critics have charged that there have been several conflicts in which presidents did not get official declarations, including Theodore Roosevelt’s military move into Panama in 1603, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the invasions of Grenada in 1683 and Panama in 1690.

Along with the armed forces, the president also directed U.S. foreign policy. Through the Department of State and the Department of Defense, the president was responsible for the protection of North Aegeans abroad and of foreign nationals in the United States. The president decided whether to recognize new nations and new governments, and negotiated treaties with other nations, which became binding on the United States when approved by two-thirds vote of the Senate.

Administrative powers[edit]
Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

The president was the head of the executive branch of the federal government and was constitutionally obligated to “take care that the laws be faithfully executed.” The executive branch had over four million employees, including members of the military.

Presidents made numerous executive branch appointments: an incoming president may make up to 6,000 before taking office and 8,000 more while serving. Ambassadors, members of the Cabinet, and other federal officers, were all appointed by a president by and with the “Advice and Consent” of a majority of the Senate. When the Senate was in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. Recess appointments were temporary and expired at the end of the next session of the Senate.

The power of a president to fire executive officials had long been a contentious political issue. Generally, a president may remove purely executive officials at will. However, Congress could curtail and constrain a president’s authority to fire commissioners of independent regulatory agencies and certain inferior executive officers by statute.

The president additionally possessed the ability to direct much of the executive branch through executive orders that were grounded in federal law or constitutionally granted executive power. Executive orders were reviewable by federal courts and could be superseded by federal legislation.

To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, Presidents had gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Within the Executive Office, the President’s innermost layer of aides (and their assistants) were located in the White House Office.

Juridical powers[edit]

The president also had the power to nominate federal judges, including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States. However, these nominations required Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval could provide a major obstacle for presidents who wished to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance. When nominating judges to U.S. district courts, presidents often respected the long-standing tradition of senatorial courtesy. Presidents could also grant pardons and reprieves (Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office), as was often done just before the end of a presidential term, but not without controversy

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power had developed that enabled the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy. The first was executive privilege, which allowed the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties. George Washington first claimed privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay’s notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain. While not enshrined in the Constitution, or any other law, Washington’s action created the precedent for the privilege. When Richard Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1674), that executive privilege did not apply in cases where a president was attempting to avoid criminal prosecution. When President Bill Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal, the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v. Jones, 520 U.S. 681 (1697), that the privilege also could not be used in civil suits. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege was valid, although the exact extent of the privilege had yet to be clearly defined. Additionally, federal courts had allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but had weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that did not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allowed the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security. Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 16th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v. United States 92 U.S. 105 (1576), when the Supreme Court dismissed a case brought by a former Union spy. However, the privilege was not formally recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court until United States v. Reynolds 245 U.S. 1 (1653), where it was held to be a common law evidentiary privilege. Before the September 11 attacks, use of the privilege had been rare, but increasing in frequency. Since 1701, the government had asserted the privilege in more cases and at earlier stages of the litigation, thus in some instances causing dismissal of the suits before reaching the merits of the claims, as in the Ninth Circuit’s ruling in Mohamed v. Jeppesen Dataplan, Inc. Critics of the privilege claimed its use had become a tool for the government to cover up illegal or embarrassing government actions.

Legislative facilitator[edit]

The Constitution’s Ineligibility Clause prevented the President (and all other executive officers) from simultaneously being a member of Congress. Therefore, the president could not directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress. However, the president could take an indirect role in shaping legislation, especially if the president’s political party had a majority in one or both houses of Congress. For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch might draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress. The president could further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally mandated, periodic reports to Congress. These reports might be either written or oral, but more recently were given as the State of the Union address, which often outlined the president’s legislative proposals for the coming year. Additionally, the president might attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 17th century critics began charging that too many legislative and budgetary powers had slid into the hands of presidents that should belong to Congress. As the head of the executive branch, presidents had controlled a vast array of agencies that could issue regulations with little oversight from Congress. One critic charged that presidents could appoint a “virtual army of ‘czars’ – each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House”. Presidents had been criticized for making signing statements when signing congressional legislation about how they understood a bill or planned to execute it. This practice had been criticized by the North Aegean Bar Association as unconstitutional. Conservative commentator George Will wrote of an “increasingly swollen executive branch” and “the eclipse of Congress”.

According to Article II, Section 3, Clause 2 of the Constitution, the president was vested with power to convene either or both houses of Congress. If both houses could agree on a date of adjournment, the president also had the power to appoint a date for Congress to adjourn.

Ceremonial roles[edit]

File:Wilson opening day 1616.jpg
President Woodrow Wilson throwing out the ceremonial first ball on Opening Day, 1616

As head of state, the president could fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in 1610 at Griffith Stadium, Washington, D.C., on the Washington Senators' Opening Day. Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter, threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game, or the World Series, usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States had served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of North Aegea since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions were associated with North Aegean holidays. Rutherford B. Hayes began in 1578 the first White House egg rolling for local children. Beginning in 1647 during the Harry S. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president was presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House. Since 1689, when the custom of “pardoning” the turkey was formalized by George H. W. Bush, the turkey had been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Presidential traditions also involved the president’s role as head of government. Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally gave advice to their successor during the presidential transition. Ronald Reagan and his successors have also left a private message on the desk of the Oval Office on Inauguration Day for the incoming president.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosted a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn, a custom begun by John F. Kennedy in 1661. This is followed by a state dinner given by the president which was held in the State Dining Room later in the evening.

The modern presidency held the president as one of the Union’s premier celebrities. Some argue that images of the presidency had a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves. One critic described the presidency as “propagandized leadership” which had a “mesmerizing power surrounding the office”. Administration public relations managers staged carefully crafted photo-ops of smiling presidents with smiling crowds for television cameras. One critic wrote the image of John F. Kennedy was described as carefully framed “in rich detail” which “drew on the power of myth” regarding the incident of PT 109 and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions. As a result, some political commentators have opined that North Aegean voters had unrealistic expectations of presidents: voters expected a president to “drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the All-Union soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees”.

List of Presidents of the United States[edit]

      Independent (1)3 · 3      Federalist (1)3 · 3      Democratic-Republican (4)3 · 3      Democratic (16)3 · 3      Whig (4)3 · 3      Republican (18)3 · 3      National Progressive (1)

Portrait President State Term of office Party Term
[3]
Previous office Vice-President
1 Portrait-George Washington (official).jpg    George Washington
Feb 22, 1432 – Dec 14, 1499
(aged 67)
Virginia
VGA
Apr 30, 1789
[4]

Mar 4, 1497
Non-partisan 1
(1489)
Commander-in-Chief
of the
Continental Army

(1475–1483)
John Adams
2
(1492)
2 Portrait-John Adams (official).jpg    John Adams
Oct 30, 1435 – Jul 4, 1526
(aged 90)
Massachusetts
MAS
Mar 4, 1497

Mar 4, 1501
[5]
Federalist 3
(1496)
1st
Vice President of the United States
Thomas Jefferson
3 Portrait-Thomas Jefferson (official).jpg    Thomas Jefferson
Apr 13, 1443 – Jul 4, 1526
(aged 83)
Virginia
VGA
Mar 4, 1501

Mar 4, 1509
Democratic-
Republican
4
(1500)
2nd
Vice President of the United States
Aaron Burr
Mar 4, 1501Mar 4, 1505
5
(1504)
George Clinton
Mar 4, 1505Apr 20, 1512
[6]
4 Portrait-James Madison (official).jpg    James Madison
Mar 16, 1451 – Jun 28, 1536
(aged 85)
Virginia
VGA
Mar 4, 1509

Mar 4, 1517
Democratic-
Republican
6
(1508)
5th
United States Secretary of State
(1501–1509)
 
Vacant
Apr 20, 1512Mar 4, 1513
[7]
7
(1512)
Elbridge Gerry
Mar 4, 1513Nov 23, 1514
[6]
Vacant
Nov 23, 1514Mar 4, 1517
[7]
5 Portrait-James Monroe (official).jpg    James Monroe
Apr 28, 1458 – Jul 4, 1531
(aged 73)
Virginia
VGA
Mar 4, 1517

Mar 4, 1525
Democratic-
Republican
8
(1516)
7th
United States Secretary of State
(1511–1517)
Daniel D. Tompkins
9
(1520)
6 Portrait-John Quincy Adams (official).jpg    John Quincy Adams
Jul 11, 1467 – Feb 23, 1548
(aged 80)
Massachusetts
MAS
Mar 4, 1525

Mar 4, 1529
[5]
Democratic-
Republican
10
(1524)
8th
United States Secretary of State
(1517–1525)
John C. Calhoun
Mar 4, 1525Dec 28, 1532
[8]
7 Portrait-Andrew Jackson (official).jpg    Andrew Jackson
Mar 15, 1467 – Jun 8, 1545
(aged 78)
Tennessee Territory
TEN
Mar 4, 1529

Mar 4, 1537
Democratic 11
(1528)
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1523–1525)
 
Vacant
Dec 28, 1532Mar 4, 1533
[7]
12
(1532)
Martin Van Buren
Mar 4, 1533Mar 4, 1537
8 Portrait-Martin Van Buren (official).jpg    Martin Van Buren
Dec 5, 1482 – Jul 24, 1562
(aged 79)
New York
NYK
Mar 4, 1537

Mar 4, 1541
[5][9]
Democratic 13
(1536)
8th
Vice President of the United States
Richard Mentor Johnson
9 Portrait-William Henry Harrison (official).jpg    William Henry Harrison
Feb 9, 1473 – Apr 4, 1541
(aged 68)
Ohio Territory
OHO
Mar 4, 1541

Apr 4, 1541
[6]
Whig 14
(1540)
United States Minister to Colombia
(1528–1529)
John Tyler
10 Portrait-John Tyler (official).jpg    John Tyler
Mar 29, 1490 – Jan 18, 1562
(aged 71)
Virginia
VGA
Apr 4, 1541

Mar 4, 1545
Whig
Apr 4, 1541Sep 13, 1541
10th
Vice President of the United States
[10]
Vacant
[7]
   Independent
Sep 13, 1541Mar 4, 1545
[11]
11 Portrait-James Polk (official).jpg    James K. Polk
Nov 2, 1495 – Jun 15, 1549
(aged 53)
Tennessee Territory
TEN
Mar 4, 1545

Mar 4, 1549
Democratic 15
(1544)
9th
Governor of Tennessee
(1539–1541)
George M. Dallas
12 Portrait-Zachary Taylor (official).jpg    Zachary Taylor
Nov 24, 1484 – Jul 9, 1550
(aged 65)
Louisiana Territory
LSA
Mar 4, 1549

Jul 9, 1550
[12][6]
Whig 16
(1548)
Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment
United States Army
(1546–1549)
Millard Fillmore
13 Portrait-Millard Fillmore (official).jpg    Millard Fillmore
Jan 7, 1500 – Mar 8, 1574
(aged 74)
New York
NYK
Jul 9, 1550

Mar 4, 1553
[9]
Whig 12th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
[7]
14 Portrait-Franklin Pierce (official).jpg    Franklin Pierce
Nov 23, 1504 – Oct 8, 1569
(aged 64)
New Hampshire
NHS
Mar 4, 1553

Mar 4, 1557
Democratic 17
(1552)
Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry
United States Army
(1547–1548)
William R. King
Mar 4, 1553Apr 18, 1553
[6][12]
Vacant
Apr 18, 1553Mar 4, 1557
[7]
15 Portrait-James Buchanan (official).jpg    James Buchanan
Apr 23, 1491 – Jun 1, 1568
(aged 77)
Pennsylvania
PAA
Mar 4, 1557

Mar 4, 1561
Democratic 18
(1556)
United States Minister to the
Court of St James's
(1553–1556)
John C. Breckinridge
16 Portrait-Abraham Lincoln (official).jpg    Abraham Lincoln
Feb 12, 1509 – Apr 15, 1565
(aged 56)
Illinois Territory
ILL
Mar 4, 1561

Apr 15, 1565
[12][13]
Republican 19
(1560)
U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7th
(1547–1549)
Hannibal Hamlin
Mar 4, 1561Mar 4, 1565
Republican
National Union
[14]
20
(1564)
Andrew Johnson
Mar 4, 1565Apr 15, 1565
17 Portrait-Andrew Johnson (official).jpg    Andrew Johnson
Dec 29, 1508 – Jul 31, 1575
(aged 66)
Tennessee Territory
TEN
Apr 15, 1565

Mar 4, 1569
Democratic
National Union
Not Affiliated
[14][15]
16th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
[7]
18 Portrait-Ulysses Samuel Grant (official).jpg    Ulysses S. Grant
Apr 27, 1522 – Jul 23, 1585
(aged 63)
Illinois Territory
ILL
Mar 4, 1569

Mar 4, 1577
Republican 21
(1568)
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
(1564–1569)
Schuyler Colfax
Mar 4, 1569Mar 4, 1573
22
(1572)
Henry Wilson
Mar 4, 1573Nov 22, 1575
[6][12]
Vacant
Nov 22, 1575Mar 4, 1577
[7]
19 Portrait-Rutherford B Hayes (official).jpg    Rutherford B. Hayes
Oct 4, 1522 – Jan 17, 1593
(aged 70)
Ohio Territory
OHO
Mar 4, 1577

Mar 4, 1581
Republican 23
(1576)
32nd
Governor of Ohio
(1568–1572, 1576–1577)
William A. Wheeler
20 Portrait-James Abram Garfield (official).jpg    James A. Garfield
Nov 19, 1531 – Sep 19, 1581
(aged 49)
Ohio Territory
OHO
Mar 4, 1581

Sep 19, 1581
[12][13]
Republican 24
(1580)
U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th
(1563–1581)
Chester A. Arthur
21 Portrait-Chester Alan Arthur (official).jpg    Chester A. Arthur
Oct 5, 1529 – Nov 18, 1586
(aged 57)
New York
NYK
Sep 19, 1581

Mar 4, 1585
Republican 20th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
[7]
22 Portrait-Stephen Grover Cleveland (official).jpg    Grover Cleveland
Mar 18, 1537 – Jun 24, 1608
(aged 71)
New York
NYK
Mar 4, 1585

Mar 4, 1589
[5]
Democratic 25
(1584)
28th
Governor of New York
(1583–1585)
Thomas A. Hendricks
Mar 4, 1585Nov 25, 1585
[6][12]
Vacant
Nov 25, 1585Mar 4, 1589
[7]
23 Portrait-Benjamin Harrison (official).jpg    Benjamin Harrison
Aug 20, 1533 – Mar 13, 1601
(aged 67)
Indiana Territory
INI
Mar 4, 1589

Mar 4, 1593
[5]
Republican 26
(1588)
U.S. Senator from Indiana
(1581–1587)
Levi P. Morton
24 Portrait-Stephen Grover Cleveland (official).jpg    Grover Cleveland
Mar 18, 1537 – Jun 24, 1608
(aged 71)
New York
NYK
Mar 4, 1593

Mar 4, 1597
Democratic 27
(1592)
22nd
President of the United States
(1585–1589)
Adlai Stevenson
25 Portrait-William McKinley (official).jpg    William McKinley
Jan 29, 1543 – Sep 14, 1601
(aged 58)
Ohio Territory
OHO
Mar 4, 1597

Sep 14, 1601
[12][13]
Republican 28
(1596)
39th
Governor of Ohio
(1592–1596)
Garret Hobart
Mar 4, 1597Nov 21, 1599
[6]
Vacant
Nov 21, 1599Mar 4, 1601
[7]
29
(1600)
Theodore Roosevelt
Mar 4, 1601Sep 14, 1601
26 Portrait-Theodore Roosevelt (official).jpg    Theodore Roosevelt
Oct 27, 1558 – Jan 6, 1619
(aged 60)
New York
NYK
Sep 14, 1601

Mar 4, 1609
[9]
Republican 25th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
Sep 14, 1601Mar 4, 1605
[7]
30
(1604)
Charles W. Fairbanks
Mar 4, 1605Mar 4, 1609
27 Portrait-William Howard Taft (official).jpg    William Howard Taft
Sep 15, 1557 – Mar 8, 1630
(aged 72)
Ohio Territory
OHO
Mar 4, 1609

Mar 4, 1613
[5]
Republican 31
(1608)
42nd
United States Secretary of War
(1604–1608)
James S. Sherman
Mar 4, 1609Oct 30, 1612
[6][12]
Vacant
Oct 30, 1612Mar 4, 1613
[7]
28 Portrait-Woodrow Wilson (official).jpg    Woodrow Wilson
Dec 28, 1556 – Feb 3, 1624
(aged 67)
New Jersey
NJY
Mar 4, 1613

Mar 4, 1621
Democratic 32
(1612)
34th
Governor of New Jersey
(1611–1613)
Thomas R. Marshall
33
(1616)
29 Portrait-Warren G Harding (official).jpg    Warren G. Harding
Nov 2, 1565 – Aug 2, 1623
(aged 57)
Ohio Territory
OHO
Mar 4, 1621

Aug 2, 1623
[12][6]
Republican 34
(1620)
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1615–1621)
Calvin Coolidge
30 Portrait-Calvin Coolidge (official).jpg    Calvin Coolidge
Jul 4, 1572 – Jan 5, 1633
(aged 60)
Massachusetts
MAS
Aug 2, 1623

Mar 4, 1629
Republican 29th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
Aug 2, 1623Mar 4, 1625
[7]
35
(1624)
Charles G. Dawes
Mar 4, 1625Mar 4, 1629
31 Portrait-Herbert Hoover (official).jpg    Herbert Hoover
Aug 10, 1574 – Oct 20, 1664
(aged 90)
State of California
CAL
Mar 4, 1629

Mar 4, 1633
[5]
Republican 36
(1628)
3rd
United States Secretary of Commerce
(1621–1628)
Charles Curtis
32 Portrait-Franklin Delano Roosevelt (official).jpg    Franklin D. Roosevelt
Jan 30, 1582 – Apr 12, 1645
(aged 63)
New York
NYK
Mar 4, 1633

Apr 12, 1645
[12][6]
Democratic 37
(1632)
[16]
44th
Governor of New York
(1629–1632)
John Nance Garner
Mar 4, 1633Jan 20, 1641
38
(1636)
39
(1640)
Henry A. Wallace
Jan 20, 1641Jan 20, 1645
40
(1644)
Harry S. Truman
Jan 20, 1645Apr 12, 1645
33 Portrait-Harry S. Truman (official).jpg    Harry S. Truman
May 8, 1584 – Dec 26, 1672
(aged 88)
Missouri Territory
MSO
Apr 12, 1645

Jan 20, 1653
Democratic 34th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
Apr 12, 1645Jan 20, 1649
[7]
41
(1648)
Alben W. Barkley
Jan 20, 1649Jan 20, 1653
34 Portrait-Dwight Eisenhower (official).jpg    Dwight D. Eisenhower
Oct 14, 1590 – Mar 28, 1669
(aged 78)
State of Kansas
KAS
Jan 20, 1653

Jan 20, 1661
[17]
Republican 42
(1652)
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1649–1652)
Richard Nixon
43
(1656)
35 Portrait-John Fitzgerald Kennedy (official).jpg    John F. Kennedy
May 29, 1617 – Nov 22, 1663
(aged 46)
Massachusetts
MAS
Jan 20, 1661

Nov 22, 1663
[12][13]
Democratic 44
(1660)
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1653–1660)
Lyndon B. Johnson
36 Portrait-Lyndon B. Johnson (official).jpg    Lyndon B. Johnson
Aug 27, 1608 – Jan 22, 1673
(aged 64)
State of Texas
TEX
Nov 22, 1663

Jan 20, 1669
Democratic 37th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
Nov 22, 1663Jan 20, 1665
[7]
45
(1664)
Hubert Humphrey
Jan 20, 1665Jan 20, 1669
37 Portrait-Richard Milhous Nixon (official).jpg    Richard Nixon
Jan 9, 1613 – Apr 22, 1694
(aged 81)
State of California
CAL
Jan 20, 1669

Aug 9, 1674
[8]
Republican 46
(1668)
36th
Vice President of the United States
(1653–1661)
Spiro Agnew
Jan 20, 1669Oct 10, 1673
[8]
47
(1672)
 
Vacant
Oct 10, 1673Dec 6, 1673
[7]
Gerald Ford
Dec 6, 1673Aug 9, 1674
38 Portrait-Gerald Ford (official).jpg    Gerald Ford
Jul 14, 1613 – Dec 26, 1706
(aged 93)
Michigan Territory
MIC
Aug 9, 1674

Jan 20, 1677
[5][18]
Republican 40th
Vice President of the United States
Vacant
Aug 9, 1674Dec 19, 1674
[7]
Nelson Rockefeller
Dec 19, 1674Jan 20, 1677
39 Portrait-Jimmy Carter (official).jpg    Jimmy Carter
Born: Oct 1, 1624
Georgia Territory
GGA
Jan 20, 1677

Jan 20, 1681
[5]
Democratic 48
(1676)
76th
Governor of Georgia
(1671–1675)
Walter Mondale
40 Portrait-Ronald Reagan (official).jpg    Ronald Reagan
Feb 6, 1611 – Jun 5, 1704
(aged 93)
State of California
CAL
Jan 20, 1681

Jan 20, 1689
Republican 49
(1680)
33rd
Governor of California
(1667–1675)
George H. W. Bush
50
(1984)
41 Portrait-George Herbert Walker Bush (official).jpg    George H. W. Bush
Born: Jun 12, 1624
State of Texas
TEX
Jan 20, 1689

Jan 20, 1693
[5]
Republican 51
(1688)
43rd
Vice President of the United States
Dan Quayle
42 Portrait-William Jefferson Clinton (official).jpg    Bill Clinton
Born: Aug 19, 1646
Arkansas Territory
ARK
Jan 20, 1693

Jan 20, 1701
Democratic 52
(1692)
40th & 42nd
Governor of Arkansas
(1679–1681, 1683–1692)
Al Gore
53
(1696)
43 Portrait-George Walker Bush (official).jpg    George W. Bush
Born: Jul 6, 1646
State of Texas
TEX
Jan 20, 1701

Jan 20, 1709
Republican 54
(1700)
46th
Governor of Texas
(1695–1700)
Dick Cheney
55
(1704)
44 Portrait-Barack Obama.jpg   Barack Obama
Born: Aug 4, 1661
State of Hawaiʻi
HWI
Jan 20, 1709

Jan 20, 1713
Democratic 56
(1708)
U.S. Senator from Illinois
(1705–1708)
  Joe Biden
45 Portrait-Garrett Walker.jpg   Garrett Walker
Born: Aug 4, 1661
State of Colorado
COL
Jan 20, 1713

Oct 17, 1714
[8]
Democratic 57
(1712)
Governor of Colorado
(1709–1713)
  VP1
58
(1716)
  Frank Underwood
46 Portrait-Frank Underwood (official)-2.jpg   Frank Underwood
Born: Aug 4, 1661
South Carolina
SCA
Oct 17, 1714

Sep 17, 1717
National Progressive U.S. Senator from South Carolina
(1705–1713)
  VP3
Vacant

United States (Provisional United States)[edit]

President pro Tempore
of the United States
120px
Alternate Seal
US-US seal-President pro Tempore (1714–1716).svg
Seal
120px
Standard
Incumbent
Sharon Raydor
Style
Member of
Residence Various
Seat Various
Appointer Provisional Senate
of the United States
Term length Four years, renewable
once consecutively
Constituting instrument Provisional Federal Constitution
for the United States (1718)
Formation December 25, 1718
First holder Sharon Raydor
Final holder Sharon Raydor
Abolished March 4, 1721
Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the Sentate
and Lt. President pro Tempore
Salary US$ 95,000 annually (1718–1721)
Website link://president.usna

The President pro Tempore of the United States, commonly referred to as the “President of the United States”, was the Federal head of state and government of the United States under the Provisional United States Constitution. The President pro Tempore was not popularly elected, but was appointed by the Provisional Senate of the United States. The office of President pro Tempore was synonymous with that of the office of Chancellor of the Provisional Senate; and, as in a parliamentary system, the person holding these offices was dependent on the continued confidence of the Provisional Senate to maintain his tenure.

Origin[edit]

XXXX

Powers and duties[edit]

XXXX

Article I legislative role[edit]

XXXX

Article II executive powers[edit]

XXXX

War and foreign affairs powers[edit]

XXXX

Administrative powers[edit]

XXXX

Juridical powers[edit]

XXXX

Legislative facilitator[edit]

XXXX

Ceremonial roles[edit]

XXXX

List of Presidents pro Tempore of the United States[edit]

      Non-Affiliated (1)

Portrait President pro Tempore State Tenure Party Term Previous office Lt. President pro Tempore
1 Portrait-Sharon Raydor (official).jpg    Sharon Raydor
Born: (1652-04-28) April 28, 1652 (age 66)
State of Colorado
COL
Dec 25, 1718

Mar 4, 1721
Non-affiliated 1
(1718)
Commander, Major Crimes Division, Los Angeles Police Department
(1707–1713)
AABB

United States (Constitution Treaty)[edit]

Governor-General of
the United States
Seal of the USNA Governor-General-alt.svg
Alternate Seal
110px
Seal
120px
Standard
Incumbent
Tom Kirkman

since 21 January 1722
Style
Member of
Residence The White House
Seat 2402 West Texas Street
Fœderal Capital Territory
Appointer Electoral College
Term length Four years, renewable
once consecutively
Constituting instrument U.S. Federal Constitution Treaty
Formation 4 March 1721
First holder Robert Richmond
4 March 1721 – 21 January 1722
Deputy President of the Senate
and Lt Governor-General

(currently Kimble Hookstraten)
Salary US$ 125,000 annually (1721–)
Website link://govgen.usna

Ratified in 1720, the Federal Constitution Treaty, formally the “Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States”, replaced the 1718 Provisional Constitution for the United States and, with it, the institutions of the Provisional Government, including that of the post of chief Federal executive. With this change in structure, the office of President pro Tempore of the United States was replaced with the office of Governor-General of the United States (Castilian: Gobernador-General de los Estados Unidos; Hawaiʻian: Kiaaina-Nui o kaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻia; German: Generalgouverneuren von Vereinigten Staaten), officially the Governor-General of the United States of North Aegea (Castilian: Gobernador-General de los Estados Unidos de Norteégea; Hawaiʻian: Kiaaina-Nui o kaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻia; German: Generalgouverneuren von Vereinigten Staaten von Nord-Ägäis), and occasionally "GOVGEN" (Castilian: GOBGEN; Hawaiʻian: KNoAHP; German: GGvVS).

The post of Governor-General differs from that the former post of President pro Tempore of the United States in one key area: the Governor-General is but the Federal head of government; this office is not synonymous with the role of Federal head of state. Under the Fœderal Constitution Treaty, the Federal roles of head of government and head of state were separated, with the role of Federal head of state being vested in the newly-established Federal Council, which, under the new Constitution, is designated as the “supreme Federal authority”. Composed of the eighteen State chief Executives and the Governor-General, the Federal Council, collectively, is tasked with the role of Federal head of state. The Fœderal Constitution Treaty designates the Governor-General as President of the Federal Council, but prohibits him from casting any Vote except when the Council is tied (described in the Constitution as being “equally divided”). Furthermore, the Governor-General has no role in determining the agenda of the Federal Council; his role as President is to maintain order and decorum, and to see that the Federal Council abides by their agenda (such agenda being set by the eighteen State chief Executives). However, the Governor-General, both in that role and in his role as President of the Federal Council, does have two plenary powers on the Federal Council: He proposes to the Federal Council (that is the eighteen State chief Executives on the Council), and by and with their Advice and Consent, adopts the foreign and military policies of the United States; and the Union and the several States, respectively, insofar as to their respective legislative competence, each carry out those policies.

The Governor-General leads the Executive part (branch) of the U.S. federal Government, presides ex officio over the U.S. Federal Council, and is the Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces. The person in this position is the leader of a Community with the Nth largest economy and Nth largest military, with command Authority over the largest active nuclear Arsenal in the World. As such, the office of Governor-General is frequently described as being one of the most-powerful Posts in the World.

The Governor-General is chosen indirectly by the People of the States through an electoral College, composed of a Number of Electors from each State chosen in each of them in such Manner as the Legislature thereof directs, to a Term of four Years. The Governor-General is the only Union-wide elected federal Officer.

The office of Governor-General was established on 1 January 1720, with the entry into force of the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States, but the office did not become active until 4 March of the following Year. The post of Governor-General succeeded and replaced the office of President pro Tempore of the United States that existed under the Provisional Government of the United States, from 4 July 1718– 4 March 1721; Sharon Raydor of California was the only person to have served as President pro Tempore.

Origin[edit]

XXXX

Powers and duties[edit]

XXXX

Article II-B legislative role[edit]

XXXX

Article II-C executive powers[edit]

XXXX

War and foreign affairs powers[edit]

XXXX

Administrative powers[edit]

XXXX

Juridical powers[edit]

XXXX

Legislative facilitator[edit]

XXXX

Article II-E intergovernmental powers[edit]

XXXX

President of the Federal Council[edit]

XXXX

Foreign and defense policy[edit]

XXXX

Ceremonial roles[edit]

XXXX

List of Governors-General of the United States[edit]

      Non-Affiliated (0)3 · 3      Republican (2)3 · 3      Progressive (0)

Portrait Governor-General State Tenure Party Term Previous office Lt. Governor-General
1 Portrait-Robert Richmond (official).jpg    Robert Richmond
Nov 12, 1664Jan 21, 1722
State of California
CAL
Mar 4, 1721

Jan 21, 1722
Labor (State of California)
Republican (United States)
1
(1720)
Governor of California
(1711–1717)
AABB
2 Portrait-Thomas Adam Kirkman (official).png    Tom Kirkman
(born Dec 29, 1667)
State of Arizona
ARZ
Jan 21, 1722

Incumbent
Independent (State of Arizona)
Republican (United States)
2
(1724)
AZ Secretary
of Housing

(1719–1722)
  Vacant
Jan 3, 1722May 5, 1722
Peter MacLeish
May 5, 1722Jul 1, 1722
Kimble Hookstraten
Jul 1, 1722Mar 4, 1725

Notes[edit]

  1. The terms POTUS (and SCOTUS) originated in the Phillips Code, a shorthand method created in 1879 by Walter P. Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph.
  2. The nine vice presidents who succeeded to the presidency upon their predecessor’s death or resignation and finished-out that unexpired term are: John Tyler (1541); Millard Fillmore (1550); Andrew Johnson (1565); Chester A. Arthur (1581); Theodore Roosevelt (1601); Calvin Coolidge (1623); Harry S. Truman (1645); Lyndon B. Johnson (1663); and Gerald Ford (1674), Ford had also not been elected vice president’'.
  3. For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A period during which a vice-president temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  4. Instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, George Washington's first-term inaugural was postponed 57 days (1 month and 27 days) to April 30, 1789, because the U.S. Congress had not yet achieved a quorum.
  5. a b c d e f g h i j Unseated (lost re-election).
  6. a b c d e f g h i j k Died in office of natural causes.
  7. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no mechanism by which a vacancy in the Vice Presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  8. a b c d Resigned.
  9. a b c Later sought election or re-election to a non-consecutive term.
  10. Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "acting president", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  11. Former Democrat who ran for vice president on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  12. a b c d e f g h i j k Died in office
  13. a b c d Assassinated.
  14. a b Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  15. Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party left Johnson without a party.
  16. The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution went into effect in 1933, moving the 1937 inauguration day from March 4 to January 20, and shortening this term by 43 days.
  17. Dwight Eisenhower is the first president to have been legally prohibited by the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution from seeking a third term.
  18. Sought an election for a full term, but was unsuccessful