Constitution:United States/1720

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Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States (1720)
by Delegates to the Prescott Convention
The Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States (“TECUS”), also known as the “Union Treaty”, the “Treaty of Prescott”, and the “Federal Constitution Treaty”, is the third permanent (fourth overall) and current Federal constitution for the United States of North Aegea. Drafted in the first half of 1718, and submitted to the States for ratification on 17 September 1718, and with final ratification achieved on 7 December 1719, it subsequently went into force at midnight on 1 January 1720. The “Fœderal Constitution Treaty, 1720” succeeded the temporary “Provisional Constitution for the United States, 1717”, and permanently replaced the “Constitution for the United States, 1487”.


Table of Contents 

Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States

Preamble

 


 

Treaty Establishing
a
Constitution
for the
United States of North Aegea

 


Adopted unanimously by the
United States in Congress assembled
January 1, 1720

 

FŒDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY:
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
1721

 

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Preamble

THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF ARIZONA,
on behalf of the People of Arizona;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF NEW MEXICO,
on behalf of the People of New Mexico;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA,
on behalf of the People of California;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA,
on behalf of the People of North Dakota;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF COLORADO,
on behalf of the People of Colorado;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF OKLAHOMA,
on behalf of the People of Oklahoma;
THE KING OF THE STATE OF HAWAIʻI,
on behalf of the People of Hawaiʻi;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF OREGON,
on behalf of the People of Oregon;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF IDAHO,
on behalf of the People of Idaho;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA,
on behalf of the People of South Dakota;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF KANSAS,
on behalf of the People of Kansas;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF TEXAS,
on behalf of the People of Texas;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF MONTANA,
on behalf of the People of Montana;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF UTAH,
on behalf of the People of Utah;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF NEBRASKA,
on behalf of the People of Nebraska;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON,
on behalf of the People of Washington;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF NEVADA,
on behalf of the People of Nevada;
THE GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF WYOMING,
on behalf of the People of Wyoming;

Each State acting in its Sovereign and Independent character,

RESOLVED, in order—,

TO FORM a more perfect Confœderacy and Union, while at the same time also preserving and protecting the sovereignty of our States;

TO ESTABLISH Justice;

TO ENSURE domestic Tranquility;

TO PROVIDE for the common Defense;

TO PROMOTE the general Welfare;—And

TO SECURE the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity —invoking the favor and guidance of Nature’s God;

DO HEREBY ordain, ratify, and establish this TREATY ESTABLISHING A CONSTITUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AEGEA between the States so ratifying the same.

Article I. Members and general
Section 1. Union and confœderacy; members
The member States of this Union and Confœderacy shall be the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaiʻi, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming;—And such other States as may Enter into Union and Confœderacy with the several States.
Section 2. Union and confœderacy; style
The Style of this Union and Confœderacy shall be “United States of North Aegea”.
Section 3. Union and confœderacy; delegation of power; clarity

For greater Certainty it is declared and shall be understood that:
  1. As to the Powers delegated to the United States, the scope and breadth thereof shall be narrowly construed, confined exclusively to those Powers and Matters that are by clear and express words of this Constitution alone comprised in the actual Enumeration of Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects on which the United States have been delegated Power to legislate, regulate, and adjudicate;
  2. As to the Powers reserved to and by the States, the scope and breadth thereof shall be broadly construed to encompass all Powers and Matters except those that, by clear and express words of this Constitution alone, are comprised in the actual Enumeration of Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects on which the United States are unambiguously delegated Power to legislate, regulate, and adjudicate, or (by clear and express words of this Constitution alone) are otherwise actually prohibited to the States;—And
  3. As to the Powers that are, by clear and express words of this Constitution alone, comprised in the actual Enumeration of Matters coming within of Classes of Subjects on which the United States are unambiguously delegated Power to legislate, regulate, and adjudicate and the Matters that are in like Manner clearly comprised in the actual Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects on which Power to legislate, regulate, and adjudicate are reserved to and by the States, respectively, whenever there may arise a Question or Controversy as to which Agency, the States respectively or the United States, as the case may be, shall be competent to exercise a given Power, the presumption of competence shall rest with the States; and to the United States shall rest the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that clear and express words of this Constitution alone actually and deliberately delegate to the United States competence to exercise that such Power.

Section 4. Union and confœderacy; intent and purpose; fœderalism principles
  1. Definitions
    For the purposes of this section:
    1. “Policies that have Fœderalism implications” shall be understood to mean Regulations, legislative Comments or proposed Legislation, and other policy Statements or Actions that have substantial direct Effects on the States, on the relationship between the governments of the United States and the States, or on the division of Power and Responsibilities among the various levels of Government.
    2. “State” or “States” shall be understood to mean the member States of the Union and Confœderacy that is by this Constitution established, individually or collectively, and, where relevant, to State governments, including Units of local Government and other political Subdivisions established by the States..
    3. “United States”, “Government of the United States”, “Union”, and “Confœderacy” shall be understood to mean the Federal Government of the United States that is by this Constitution established.
  2. Fundamental Fœderalism Principles
    In formulating and implementing Policies that have Fœderalism implications, the United States shall be guided by the following fundamental Fœderalism principles:
    1. Fœderalism is rooted in the knowledge that our political, social, and economic Liberties are best assured by limiting the size and scope of the Government of the United States.
    2. The People of the respective States created the Government of the United States when they delegated to it those expressly enumerated governmental Powers relating to Matters that are by clear and express words excepted out of the Competence of the individual States. All other sovereign Powers, save those that are (by clear and express words of this Constitution) prohibited to the States, are reserved to the States, to be exercised exclusively by them.
    3. The constitutional relationship among these Governments, State and Union, is formalized in and protected by article III of this Constitution.
    4. The People of the States are free, subject only to restrictions in this Constitution itself or in constitutionally authorized Acts of Congress, to define the political, and legal Character of their lives; and are free, subject only to Restrictions in this Constitution and the Constitution of their State alone, to define the moral and cultural Character of their lives.
    5. In nearly every area of governmental Concern, the States uniquely possess the constitutional Authority, the Resources, and the Competence to discern the sentiments of the People and to govern accordingly: The States are the most competent Administrations for the domestic Concerns of the Union, and it is they that are the surest bulwarks against antirepublican tendencies.
    6. The nature of the constitutional System of the Union and Confœderacy that is by this Constitution established expressly encourages a healthy Diversity in the public Policies adopted by the People of the respective States according to their own respective Conditions, Needs, and Desires. In the search for enlightened public Policy, individual States are expressly free to experiment with a variety of approaches to public Issues.
    7. Acts of the Government of the United States –whether legislative, executive, or judicial in nature– that exceed the enumerated Powers of that government under this Constitution violate the principle of Fœderalism established by the Framers and are void, unauthoritative, and of no force throughout the United States and in every Place subject to their Jurisdiction.
    8. In the absence of clear and express words of constitutional or (subject to this Constitution) statutory Authority, the presumption of competence shall rest exclusively with the individual States. Uncertainties regarding the legitimate Authority of the Government of the United States shall be resolved against Legislation or Regulation at the Federal level.
  3. Fœderalism Policymaking Criteria
    In addition to the fundamental Fœderalism principles set forth in subsection B, the United States shall adhere to the following criteria when formulating and implementing Policies that have Fœderalism implications:
    1. There shall be strict adherence to constitutional Principles. The United States shall closely examine the constitutional and statutory Authority supporting any federal Action that would limit the policymaking Discretion of the States, and shall carefully assess the necessity for such Action. In every Case, the States shall be consulted before any such Action is implemented.
    2. Federal action limiting the policymaking Discretion of the States shall be taken only where constitutional Authority for the Action is provided by clear and express words in this Constitution alone, and the federal Activity is necessitated by the presence of a problem of Union-wide scope. For the purposes of this section:
      1. It is important to recognize the distinction between problems of Union-wide scope (in which federal Action may be Necessary and Proper) and problems that are merely common to the States (in which federal Action shall be neither Necessary nor Proper, because States, acting individually or together, can effectively deal with them);—And
      2. Constitutional Authority for federal Action is by clear and express words only when Authority for the Action:
        1. Shall be found in a specific provision of this Constitution;
        2. There is no clear provision in this Constitution expressly prohibiting federal Action;—And
        3. The Action does not touch upon the Powers reserved to the States.
    3. With respect to federal Policies administered by the States, the Government of the United States shall grant the States the maximum administrative Discretion possible. Intrusive federal oversight of State administration is neither Necessary nor Desirable, and shall be forever prohibited.
    4. When undertaking to formulate and implement Policies that have Fœderalism implications, the United States shall:
      1. Encourage States to develop their own Policies to achieve program Objectives and to work with appropriate Officials in other States;
      2. Refrain, to the maximum extent possible, from establishing uniform, Union-wide Standards for Programs; and, whenever and wherever possible, defer to the States to establish Standards;—And
      3. When Union-wide Standards are required, consult with appropriate Officials and Organizations representing the States in developing those Standards.
  4. Special Requirements for Preemption
    1. The United States shall construe, in Regulations and otherwise, a federal Statute to preempt State Law only if the Statute shall contain an express preemption provision which shall compel the conclusion that the Congress shall have intended preemption of State Law, or when the exercise of State Authority shall directly conflict with the exercise of federal Authority under the federal Statute.
    2. Where a federal Statute does not preempt State Law (as addressed in part (1) of this subsection), the United States shall construe any authorization in the Statute for the issuance of Regulations as authorizing preemption of State Law by rule-making only when the Statute shall authorize by clear and express words issuance of preemptive Regulations compelling the conclusion that the Congress shall have expressly intended to delegate to the Department or Agency the Authority to issue Regulations preempting State Law.
    3. Any regulatory preemption of State Law shall be restricted to the minimum level Necessary to achieve the express Objectives of the Statute pursuant to which such Regulations are promulgated.
    4. As soon as an executive Department or Agency of the Government of the United States shall foresee the possibility of a conflict between State Law and Federally protected Interests within its area of regulatory responsibility, the Department or Agency shall consult with appropriate Officials and Organizations representing the States in an effort to avoid such a conflict.
    5. When an executive Department or Agency of the Government of the United States shall propose to act through adjudication or rule-making to preempt State Law, the Department or Agency shall provide all affected States notice and an opportunity for appropriate participation in the proceedings.
  5. Special Requirements for Legislative Proposals
    The Congress shall consider or adopt no legislation that would
    1. Directly regulate the States in ways that would interfere with Functions essential to the States’ separate and independent existence or operate to directly displace the States’ freedom to structure integral Operations in areas of traditional governmental Functions;
    2. Attach to federal Grants conditions that are not directly related to the purpose of the Grant;—Or
    3. Preempt State Law, unless preemption shall be consistent with the fundamental Fœderalism principles set forth in subsection B, and unless a clearly legitimate federal Purpose, consistent with the Fœderalism policymaking Criteria set forth in subsection C, cannot otherwise be met.
  6. Purpose of Confœderacy and Union
    The said States enumerated in section one of this article hereby severally enter into a firm League of Friendship with each other, for their common Defense, the Security of their Sovereignty and Liberties, and their mutual and general Welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all Force offered to, or Attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of Religion, Sovereignty, Trade, or any other Pretense whatsoever. The United States do not, and shall not, ever, compose a single State, but such Number of separate States, respectively, that are by this Constitution included within this Union and Confœderacy. The United States shall never be reduced to a consolidated State, but forever a Union and Confœderacy of such Number of sovereign, free and independent States that are United for certain, express and intentional Purposes as by words clearly enumerated in this Constitution alone, and for no other Purposes of any kind whatsoever, any Law, Treaty, Regulation, Order, Policy or Decision, including Court rulings, to the contrary notwithstanding.
  7. Aims of Confœderacy and Union
    In carrying this Constitution into effect, the United States shall preserve, protect, and defend the Privileges and Immunities of the People of the respective States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy; and, in like Manner, the autonomy, independence, and sovereignty of the said States, unimpaired, insomuch as are reserved to each of them, respectively, by this Constitution. They shall also, in carrying this Constitution into effect, promote the common Welfare, sustainable Development, internal Cohesion, and cultural Diversity of the said respective States; guarantee to each of them the greatest possible equality of Opportunity among their citizens; and commit themselves to a just and peaceful international Order.
  8. Prescriptions of intent, purpose, and principles
    The Intent and Purpose of this Union and Confœderacy is prescribed in subsection F of this section. The Aims of this Union and Confœderacy are prescribed in subsection G of this section. The Principles upon which this Union and Confœderacy is founded are prescribed in subsections A through E of this section.
  9. Prohibited constructions and interpretations
    This Constitution shall never be construed or interpreted in any way that would effect an abridgment or perversion of, or any deviation from, the original Intent and Purpose of this Union and Confœderacy as understood by the States at the Time of ratification of this Constitution.
  10. Effect of Treaties to be subject to the intent, purpose, and principles of this Constitution
    No Treaty to which the United States, or any of them, may be Party, which by acceding thereto may, by the provisions of the said Treaty, effect or obligate a construction or interpretation of this Constitution that would, in any way, act an abridgment, perversion, or any deviation from, the original Intent and Purpose of this Union and Confœderacy, such Treaties being repugnant thereto; and neither the United States, or any of them, shall have Power to accede to any Treaty, which, by becoming Party thereto, may, by the provisions of the said Treaty, effect or obligate a construction or interpretation of this Constitution that would, in any way, act an abridgment, perversion, or any deviation from, the original Intent and Purpose of this Union and Confœderacy; all such repugnant Treaties shall be null, void, unauthoritative, and of no force of any kind whatsoever throughout the United States and in every Place subject to their Jurisdiction. The protections afforded this Constitution under this subsection shall in each State extend to protect in like Manner the Constitution of that State; and shall, in the District constituting the Seat of the Government of the United States, extend to protect in like Manner the basic Law of such District.
Section 5. Construction of laws
This Constitution and those of the States respectively, and all Laws enacted under each of them, respectively, and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their respective express Authorities, and any other Thing having force of Law, or provision thereof, as the case may be, shall be construed solely pursuant to the textual meaning of the whole Body of the Text, or such provision thereof concerned, as the case may be, and the context in which it exists, in such Manner as would be easily understood by a rational Person (such Person having skilled command of the official language of the Jurisdiction concerned) to which such Person would be subject to such Constitution, Law, Treaty or any other Thing having force of Law, as the case may be: Provided always, that in the event that, in construing a Constitution, Law, Treaty, or any other Thing having force of Law, or provision thereof concerned, as the case may be, according to the textual and contextual meaning thereof in the Manner that is by this section prescribed, there arise an ambiguity as to the meaning of such Text or provision, the construction thereof shall defer to the traditional understanding as shall have been held at the Time at which such Constitution, Law, Treaty, or any other Thing having force of Law, or provision thereof, as the case may be, shall have been adopted, any Thing to the contrary notwithstanding.
Section 6. Short title
This Constitution may be cited as the “Federal Constitution Treaty”, the “United States Constitution Treaty”, the “United States Constitution”, or the “Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States”.
Article II-A. Federal power; distribution
Section 1. United States; powers; separation
The Powers of the Government of the United States shall be divided into three separate Departments, namely the legislative, the executive, and the judicial; and, except as provided in this Constitution, such Departments shall be separate and distinct, and no one of such Departments shall exercise the Powers properly belonging to either of the others.
Section 2. United States; powers; exercise
No Department of the Government of the United States shall have or exercise any Power except those which are by clear and express words of this Constitution actually delegated to that Department.
Article II-B. Federal power; legislative
Section 1. United States; legislative power; congress; representation
  1. All legislative Powers herein actually delegated to the United States shall be vested in a general Legislature of the Union in the name and form of a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
  2. The Senate shall represent the Governments of the respective States, and the House of Representatives shall represent the People of the respective States.
Section 2. Senate; composition; election; term; vote; general
  1. The Senate shall be composed of three Senators from each State, chosen in each of them by the chief Executive thereof, by and with the Advice and Consent of the least numerous Branch of the State Legislature, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote: Provided always, that each State shall be reserved the Power to recall its Senators, or any of them, at any Time within the Term of six Years for which such Senator, or any of them, shall be chosen, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the unfinished Term; such Power of Recall being exercised in and for each State by the chief Executive thereof, and any Vacancy created in the Representation of any State in the Senate by the exercise of the Power of Recall, or otherwise, shall be filled in the same Manner as to the choosing of Senators as prescribed in this Constitution; and for further Clarity it shall be understood that the Senators from each State shall serve at the Pleasure of the chief Executive thereof. But each State may make Laws providing for a method of constructive Recall of its Senators (in which no Recall of a Senator shall take effect until his successor shall be chosen and qualified) and for making additional Rules governing the Manner in which its Senators are chosen and qualified, subject only to the provisions of this Constitution and the Constitution and Laws of the State concerned.
  2. Except where this Constitution by clear and express words shall require or permit otherwise, no Vote of the Senate shall be deemed to have passed without the approval of four-sevenths of their total Number (such total Number being equal to thrice the total number of States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy): Provided, that where this Constitution shall require the Senate to act by a different Majority, the Senate shall act by such Majority as prescribed by this Constitution or (where no prescription is made by this Constitution) by their Rules, provided that such Majority so prescribed shall be no less than the said four-sevenths of their total Number.
  3. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the chief Executive thereof shall have Power to fill up such Vacancies, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of the next Session of the State Legislature.
  4. No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the State for which he shall be chosen, and who shall not, when chosen, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
  5. Where this Constitution by clear and express words shall require Votes in the Senate to be taken by States, Votes shall be cast by the delegation from each State, each State having one Vote.
  6. The Lieutenant Governor-General shall be President of the Senate, but he shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
  7. The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro Tempore, in the Absence of their President, or when he shall exercise the Office of Governor-General of the United States.
  8. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments of Officers of the United States. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the Governor-General of the United States is tried the chief Justice of the federal Court shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two-thirds of the total Number of Senators.
  9. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of Honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: But the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
Section 3. House of representatives; composition; eleciton; term; vote; general
  1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of each State, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof shall by Law direct, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
  2. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of that State in which he shall be chosen, and who shall not, when chosen, be two Years an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
  3. Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of Citizens, including those bound to Penitentiary for a Term of Years, the whole number of aliens permanently and lawfully Inhabiting each State. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as the Congress shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have no less than four Representatives; and until such Enumeration shall be made, the State of Arizona shall be entitled to choose thirty-two, California ninety, Colorado twenty-nine, Hawaiʻi seven, Idaho ten, Kansas fifteen, Montana thirteen, Nebraska seven, Nevada fifteen, New Mexico fifteen, North Dakota, five, Oklahoma twenty-one, Oregon twenty-one, South Dakota five, Texas ninety-four, Utah nineteen, Washington thirty-
  4. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the chief Executive thereof shall drop Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
  5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker, a Speaker pro Tempore, and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment of Officers of the United States.
Section 4. Congress; elections; regulations; sessions
  1. The Times, Places, and Manner of choosing Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; But the Congress (acting under section eight, subsection (B), of this article) may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the choosing of Senators: Provided always, that no such Regulation made or altered by the Congress shall take place without the approval in the Senate by the Delegations from two-thirds of the several States, and the approval in the House of Representatives by three-fourths of their whole Number.
  2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall commence on the first Monday in January, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day, such Day being not earlier than the first Monday in January; and they shall adjourn in each Year no later than the last Friday in October. In appointing a different Day to assemble, and in like Manner to adjourn, the Congress shall act under section eight, subsection (B), of this article.
Section 5. Congress, houses of; judges quorum; rules; order; journal; adjourn; votes
  1. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from Day to Day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
  2. Each House may, by a Majority of the total Number of its Members, determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds of them, expel a Member.
  3. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from Time to Time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any Question shall, at the Desire of one-fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
  4. Neither House, during any Session of the Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three Days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
  5. In all Votes by the Senate and House of Representatives, jointly or separately, the Vote shall be given viva voce, except in the Election of their Officers.
Section 6. Members of congress; compensation; arrest; appointment; emolument
  1. The Senators and Representatives from each State shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained pursuant to the Constitution and Laws of the State in which they were chosen, and paid out of the Treasury of the State in which they were chosen. The Senators and Representatives shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.
  2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was chosen, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such Time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office. In and for each State, no adjustment in the Compensation of the Senators or Representatives therefrom shall take effect until a period of six Years have intervened.
Section 7. Congress; bills
  1. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills.
  2. All Bills for appropriating Revenue shall originate in the Senate, but the House of Representatives may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills.
  3. Every Bill embracing any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in section eight, subsection (A), of this article, which shall have passed the Senate and House of Representatives, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the Governor-General: If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such Reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and, if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a Law: Provided always, that in all such Cases, the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the Governor-General within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it; unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
  4. Every Bill embracing any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in section eight, subsection (B), of this article, which shall have passed the Senate and House of Representatives, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the Federal Council (composed of the chief Executive of each State and the Governor-General, but the Governor-General shall have no Vote unless they be equally divided): If a Majority of the Federal Council approve they shall sign it, but if not they shall return it, with their Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such Reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a Law: Provided always, that in all such Cases, the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the Federal Council within thirty Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to them, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if they had signed it; unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
  5. Except where this Constitution expressly provides otherwise, every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be Necessary (questions of Adjournment excepted) shall be presented to the Governor-General or, where required, to the Federal Council; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him (or the Federal Council, as the case may be), or being disapproved by him (or the Federal Council, as the case may be), shall be re-passed by two-thirds of each House, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
  6. No Law shall be passed except by Bill, and no Bill shall be so amended in its passage through either House as to change its original purpose.
  7. Except where this Constitution expressly provides otherwise, Bills may originate in either House, and when passed by such House may be amended, altered, or rejected by the other.
  8. No Bill, requiring the Consent of the Senate and House of Representatives, shall have the force of a Law until it has been Read on three separate Days in each House, and free Discussion allowed thereon; but in Cases of imperative Public necessity (which necessity shall be stated in a Preamble or in the Body of the Bill) three-fourths of the House in which the Bill may be pending may suspend this Rule, the Yeas and Nays being taken on the Question of Suspension, and entered upon the Journals.
  9. After a Bill has been considered and defeated by either House of the Congress, no Bill containing the same Substance shall be passed into a Law during the same Session. After a Resolution has been acted on and defeated, no Resolution containing the same Substance shall be considered at the same Session.
  10. No Bill (except general appropriation Bills, which may embrace the various Subjects and Accounts, for and on account of which Monies are appropriated) shall contain more than one Subject, which shall be expressed in its Title: But if any Subject shall be embraced in an Act which shall not be expressed in the Title, such Act shall be void only as to so much thereof as shall not be so expressed.
  11. Except where clear and express words of this Constitution shall permit otherwise, no Bill shall touch upon any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in article III, section one, of this Constitution, such Matters being reserved exclusively to the States respectively, to be exercised by them only: But if any Act of the Congress shall touch upon such Matter or Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects that are reserved exclusively to the States, and where no Authority to legislate on such Matter or Matters shall have been by this Constitution clearly and actually delegated to the Congress, such Act shall be void only as to so much thereof as shall touch upon such Matter or Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects that are reserved to the States.
  12. No Law shall be revived or amended by reference to its Title; but in such case the Act revived or the section or sections amended shall be re-enacted and published at length.
  13. No Bill shall be considered unless it shall have been first referred to a Committee and reported thereon, and no Bill shall be passed which shall not have been presented and referred to and reported from a Committee at least three Days before the adjournment sine die of the Congress.
  14. No Bill which shall have passed the Senate and House of Representatives, except the general appropriation Bill, and no Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be Necessary (questions of Adjournment excepted), having been approved the Governor-General (or the Federal Council, as the case may be) shall take effect or go into force until ninety Days after the adjournment sine die of the Session at which it was enacted, unless in case of an Emergency, which Emergency must be expressed in a Preamble or in the Body of the Act, two-thirds of the Members in each House of the Congress shall otherwise direct; said Vote to be taken by Yeas and Nays, and entered upon the Journals.
  15. The presiding Officer of each House shall, in the presence of the House over which he presides, sign all Bills and joint Resolutions passed by the Congress, after their Titles have been Publicly read before signing; and the fact of signing shall be entered on the Journals.
  16. When the Congress shall be convened in special Session, there shall be no legislation upon any Subjects other than those designated in the Proclamation of the Governor-General calling such Session, or presented to them by the Governor-General; and no such Session shall be of longer duration than sixty Days.
  17. Insofar as to the Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects on which the Congress have Power to legislate, the United States may make Treaties with foreign States.
Section 8. Congress; legislative competence
  1. The Congress shall have Power:
    1. To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, Necessary to pay the Debts, and provide for the common Defense and general Weal of the United States: But all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the several States;
    2. To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin; and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
    3. To prescribe the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;
    4. To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of the Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States;
    5. To establish post Offices and post Roads;
    6. To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
    7. To prescribe the Punishment of Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;
    8. To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
    9. To provide and maintain a Navy; and an Air Force;
    10. To provide and maintain nuclear and other strategic Forces;
    11. To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land; air; naval; and nuclear and strategic Forces;
    12. To establish throughout the several States uniform Rules for the organizing, arming, and disciplining, of the Militaries and Militia of the respective States; but no such Rules shall have any effect in any State until they shall have been adopted and enacted as Law by the Legislature thereof;
    13. To organize the Government of the United States;—And
    14. To provide for Revising, Digesting, and publishing the Laws of the United States, and a like Revision, Digest, and Publication shall be made every two Years thereafter.
  2. The Congress, acting as an Agent of the several States, shall also have Power:
    1. To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; and to provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections, and repel Invasions;
    2. To constitute Tribunals inferior to the federal Court;
    3. To establish throughout the several States an uniform Rule prescribing the minimum requirements for the Naturalization of foreign Nationals by the respective States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy; and in like Manner uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies: But until such Time as the Congress shall establish such uniform Rule of Naturalization and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies, the States respectively shall continue to exercise Power over these Matters in a plenary Manner;
    4. To specify Rules to govern the Manner by which People may exchange or trade Goods from one State to another, to remove Obstructions to interstate Trade erected by States, but only insofar as shall be expressly Necessary and Proper to facilitate the free flow of Goods between the different States, which shall be carried into effect by the States respectively: Provided always, that all such Rules adopted in strict pursuance of this Class of Power shall be binding on each State and shall have direct effect in the Courts of each of them, that is to say self-executing;—And for further Clarity it shall be understood that the United States shall make no Rule, Law, or any Thing having force of Law, respecting the internal Trade and Commerce of the States respectively, or any of them, that is to say intrastate Trade and Commerce;
    5. To regulate Trade with foreign States;—And
    6. To make all Laws which shall be absolutely Necessary and Proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers enumerated in subsections (A) and (B) of this section, and all other Powers that are by clear and express words of this Constitution delegated to the United States: Provided always, that except where this Constitution by clear and express words shall permit otherwise, no Law enacted under this part shall in any way work an abridgment, pre-emption or other such infringement upon the Powers or other Competence of the States comprised in the Enumeration in article III, section one, of this Constitution of the Classes of Subjects that are by this Constitution reserved exclusively to the States respectively, or other Powers or Competence reserved to the same.
  3. For further Clarity, it shall be understood that any Matter directly coming within any of the Classes of Subjects actually Enumerated in this section shall not be construed as to come within the Class of Matters of a Local or Private nature comprised in the Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects that are by this Constitution reserved exclusively to the States respectively.
Section 9. Congress; powers; limitations
  1. The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall never be suspended by the United States: But nothing in this section shall be construed as to prohibit a State, or any number of them, from suspending the said Privilege during Invasion or Insurrection, but only insofar as may be absolutely Necessary to restore Peace and good Order, pursuant in each State to the Constitution and Laws thereof.
  2. No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law of any kind shall be passed or enforced.
  3. No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
  4. No Tax or Duty shall be laid by the United States on Articles exported from any State.
  5. No Tax shall be laid by the United States on Income or Property, real or otherwise.
  6. No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear or pay Duties in another.
  7. No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from Time to Time.
  8. No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under the United States, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any Present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any foreign King, Prince or State: Provided always, that nothing in this Constitution shall be construed as to prohibit the granting of such Titles by the State of Hawaiʻi, including the Crown thereof; or otherwise negatively affecting the Crown of the State of Hawaiʻi; and in any such Case relative to the granting of Titles of Nobility by the State of Hawaiʻi, the Consent of the Congress shall be neither Necessary nor Appropriate.
Section 10. States; powers; limitations
  1. No State shall, without the Consent of the Senate, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; or lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely Necessary for executing its inspection Laws.
  2. No State shall enter into any Alliance, or Confederation; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or (the State of Hawaiʻi excepted) grant any Title of Nobility.
Section 11. States; powers; treaties and compacts
Insofar as to the Matters touching on the Classes of Subjects on which the States are reserved (or otherwise retain) Power to legislate, they may make Treaties with each other, and, with the Consent of the Senate, with foreign States.
Section 12. United States; territory; limitations
  1. For greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that, except for the express Purpose of establishing the Seat of the Government of the United States as prescribed by this Constitution, no State shall ever be deprived of Territory for the benefit of the United States: But in each State the United States may, with the Consent of the State Legislature, purchase and own real Property for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards and other needful Buildings:—And in each State the Constitution and Laws of that State shall extend to, and shall have full effect on, such Property on like Terms as every other Place in the State.
  2. The public Lands in each State shall belong exclusively to the People thereof; and shall in each State be disposed of in such Manner as the Constitution and Laws thereof shall prescribe. For further Clarity, it shall be understood that at no Time shall any public Lands in any State belong to, or be owned or otherwise managed by, the United States.
Section 13. United States; balanced budget
  1. Immediately after the ratification of this Constitution, no new Debt shall be created against, or incurred by the United States, or under their Authority except to repel Invasion or suppress Insurrection, and then only by a concurrence in each House of the Congress by two-thirds of the whole Number of Members thereof, respectively, and the Vote shall be taken by Yeas and Nays and thereafter entered on their Journals: Provided, that the Governor-General may be authorized to negotiate temporary Loans, never to exceed three hundred thousand Dollars, to meet the deficiencies in the Treasury, and until the same is paid no new Loan shall be negotiated.
  2. To prevent further deficits in the Treasury of the United States, it shall be unlawful from and after the adoption of this Constitution for the Comptroller of the United States to draw any Warrant or other Order for the payment of Money belonging to, or administered by, the United States upon the Treasurer of the United States, unless there is in the hand of such Treasurer actual Money appropriated and available for the full payment of the same. In case there is, at the end of any fiscal Year, insufficient Money in the Treasury of the United States for the proper payment of Claims presented to the Comptroller for the issuance of Warrants, the Comptroller shall issue Warrants for that proportion of each such Claim which the Money available for the payment of all said Claims bears to the whole, and such Warrants for such prorated sums shall thereupon be paid by the Treasurer of the United States. At the end of each fiscal Year all unpaid appropriations which exceed the amount of Money in the Treasury of the United States subject to the payment of the same after the proration above provided for, shall thereupon become null and void to the extent of such excess.
  3. A violation of this section by any Member of Congress or by any Person holding an Office of Trust, Honor, or Profit under the United States shall work a forfeiture and resignation of his Office, and a perpetual disqualification from holding any Office of Trust, Honor, or Profit under the United States: But the Congress (by a Vote in each House by two-thirds of the total Number of Members thereof, respectively), by and with the Advice and Consent of the Federal Council (provided three-fourths of their Number concur), may remove the disqualification.
Article II-C. Federal power; executive
Section 1. United States; executive power; governor-general; election
  1. Except where this Constitution by clear and express words shall require otherwise, all executive Powers herein actually delegated to the United States shall be vested in a Governor-General of the United States. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and be chosen, as follows:
    1. Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress:—But no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
    2. The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and Vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall Sign and Certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate or, if there be none, to the President pro Tempore of the Senate. The President of the Senate or, if there be none, the President pro Tempore of the Senate, shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the Governor-General, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the Senate shall immediately choose by Ballot one of them for Governor-General; and if no Person have a Majority, then, from the five highest on the List, the Senate shall in like Manner choose the Governor-General: But in choosing the Governor-General, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; and a Quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be Necessary to a Choice: Provided, that if they be equally divided, the President of the Senate or, if there be none, the President pro Tempore of the Federal Council, shall have Power to cast the deciding Vote on the Matter, in which Case the Person having a Majority of Votes shall be the Governor-General.
  2. The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the several States.
  3. No Person except a natural born Citizen of any of the united States, or a Citizen of any of them at the Time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of Governor-General; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within any of the united States.
  4. In Case of the Removal of the Governor-General from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Absence from the United States, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the President of the Senate; and the Congress (in the Senate by the approval of the Delegations from three-fifths of the several States; and in the House of Representatives by the approval of two-thirds of their whole Number) may, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Federal Council, provide, by Law, for the Case of Removal, Death, Absence, Resignation or Inability, both of the Governor-General and the President of the Senate declaring what Officer shall then exercise the Powers and Duties of the Office of Governor-General, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a Governor-General shall be elected and qualified.
  5. The Governor-General shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States or any of them, or from any Place subject to their Jurisdiction.
  6. Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly Swear (or Affirm) that I, with every Fiber of my Being, will Preserve, Protect and Defend the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States against all Enemies, foreign and domestic, and, in like Manner, Preserve, Protect, and Defend the Sovereignty, Independence, and Freedom of the several States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy; that I will bear true Faith and Allegiance to the Constitution for the United States; that I take this Obligation freely, without any mental Reservation or purpose of Evasion; and that I will Well and Faithfully discharge the Duties of the Office on which I am about to enter.”
Section 2. Governor-General; powers; general
  1. The Governor-General shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States; and of the Militia of the several States, but he shall only be Commander-in-Chief of the Militia of the several States, or any of them, when they shall be called into the actual Service of the United States: Provided always, that the no State Militia, or any Part thereof, shall be called into the Service of the United States without the express written Consent of the chief Executive of the State or States concerned, and for no other Purpose but to repel Invasion or suppress Insurrection; and, in all Cases except actual Invasion or Insurrection in one or more States, the chief Executive of any State shall have Power to deny the Militia of his State from entering into the Service of the United States. Provided always, that any Law or Treaty of the United States, or Order of the Governor-General, or judicial Decree, to the contrary notwithstanding, no Military of any State, or any Part thereof, shall, in or for any Case or Reason whatsoever, ever be called into the Service of the United States.
  2. He may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment, Treason or Sedition.
  3. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties (provided always, that two-thirds of the total Number of Senators concur), and that, except where this Constitution expressly permits otherwise, all such Treaties shall embrace only such Matters directly coming within the Classes of Subjects expressly and clearly Enumerated in article II-B, section 8, of this Constitution; he shall take Care that the Laws of the United States are faithfully carried out; and he shall nominate and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: But the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the Governor-General alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
  4. The Governor-General shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.
Section 3. Governor-General; powers; additional
He shall give to the Congress at every Session information on the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge Necessary and Expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may Adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors to the United States and other public Ministers to the same; and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.
Section 4. Civil officers; removal
The Governor-General, and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. But as to the Governor-General, he shall also be responsible to the several State chief Executives, and upon the demand of three-fourths of them, the Office of Governor-General shall immediately become Vacant, and, if they shall also in like Manner demand, the Office of President of the Senate shall also become Vacant: Provided, that if the Governor-General shall have been dismissed, until such Time as a new Governor-General shall be elected and qualified, the Powers and Duties of the said Office shall devolve upon the President of the Senate or, if he shall have likewise been dismissed, the Federal Council, notwithstanding any Law concerning the Succession to the Office of Governor-General of the United States; —And, in case of the dismissal of the President of the Senate, until such time as a new President of the Senate shall be chosen, in the Manner prescribed by this Constitution, the Powers and Duties of the Office of President of the Senate shall devolve upon their President pro Tempore.
Article II-D. Federal power; judicial
Section 1. United States; judicial power; courts
The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one federal Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time Ordain and Establish, and (pursuant to the Constitution and Laws of each State) in the Courts of the respective States. The Judges of the federal and inferior Courts shall hold their Offices during good Behavior; and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
Section 2. United States; judicial power; jurisdiction
  1. The judicial Power shall extend—
    1. To all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;
    2. To all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls;—And
    3. To Controversies between two or more States; between a State and the United States; and between the United States and a foreign State.
  2. Provided always—That the judicial Power of the United States shall never be held to extend to any Question, Case, or Controversy arising under the Constitution or Laws of any State, or any Treaty made, or which shall be made, under its Authority; except to enforce Compliance with this Constitution.
  3. In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the federal Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the federal Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
  4. The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in and by the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Section 3. Federal court; composition; quorum; powers; clerk; rules
  1. The federal Court shall consist of a chief Justice and a Number of associate Justices equal to the Number of States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy, a Majority of which shall constitute a Quorum, and the concurrence of a Majority of them shall be Necessary to a Decision: Provided always, that the chief Justice shall have no Vote unless they be equally divided. No Person shall be eligible to be a Justice of the federal Court who shall not, at the Time of his Appointment, be a Citizen of any of the respective States of the age of thirty Years, and shall have been a practicing Lawyer or a Judge of a Court of Record in any of the respective States, or such Lawyer and Judge together, at least seven Years: And for the Purpose of eligibility to the Office of chief Justice, a Citizen of the District constituting the Seat of Government of the United States shall be considered on like Terms and in like Manner as if he were a Citizen of any of the respective State.
  2. The Governor-General shall nominate and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint the chief Justice; and in and for each State, the chief Executive thereof shall, in such Manner as the Constitution and Laws of that State shall direct, appoint the associate Justice of the federal Court from that State: Provided always, that in case of a Vacancy in the office of any Justice, such Vacancy shall be filled by the appointing Power in like Manner as prescribed for choosing such Justice.
  3. Each Justice may be recalled for good Cause by the appointing Power in such Manner as the Legislature thereof shall direct: But no recall of a Justice shall take effect until his replacement shall be chosen.
  4. The federal Court and the Justices thereof shall have Power to issue, under such Regulations as may be prescribed by Law, the Writ of Mandamus and all other Writs Necessary to enforce the Jurisdiction of said Court. The federal Court shall have Power upon Affidavit or otherwise, as by the Court may be thought Proper, to ascertain such Matters of Fact as may be Necessary to the Proper exercise of its Jurisdiction. The federal Court shall sit for the transaction of Business from the first Monday in October until the last Saturday of June of every Year, at the Seat of the Government of the United States: But they may, at their choosing, also sit at other Places not more than two per State.
  5. The federal Court shall appoint a Clerk for each place at which they may sit, and each of said Clerks shall give Bond in such Manner as is now or may hereafter be required by Law; and each Clerk shall hold his Office for four Years, and shall be subject to removal by said Court for good Cause entered of record on the minutes of said Court.
  6. The federal Court shall have Power to make Rules and Regulations for the Government of the said Court and for such other Courts of the United States as may be established by Congress, and to regulate Proceedings and expedite the dispatch of Business therein: But all such Rules and Regulations shall at all Times be subject to revision or repeal by the Congress.
Section 4. Treason
  1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying War against them; or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.
  2. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
  3. The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason against the United States, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained.
Section 5. United States; judicial power; powers denied
The judicial Power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any Suit or other Cause in Law or Equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the united States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any foreign State. No State shall be a made Defendant or otherwise be a Party to any Suit in any Court of the United States until such time as the Legislature of that State shall have by general Law prescribed the Manner in which Suit may be brought against that State.
Section 6. United States; judicial power; jurisdiction; static; unaffected by treaty
For greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the Jurisdiction of the federal Court of the United States or that of such other Courts of the United States as may be established by Congress shall not in any case be increased, enlarged, or extended by any Fiction, Collusion, or mere Suggestion;—And that no Treaty shall be construed as to alter this Constitution or the Constitution of any State, or the meaning or effect of either.
Article II-E. Federal power; federative
Part I. Fundamental principles
Section 1. United States; relation; primus inter pares
Except where this Constitution shall by clear and express words require otherwise, the United States shall be nothing but primus inter pares in relation to the several States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy.
Part II. Federal council
Section 1. Members; voting; powers, provision of
  1. There is established a Council of the States in the name and form of a Federal Council of the United States, composed of the chief Executive of each State and the Governor-General of the United States, each of whom shall have one Vote: Provided always, the Governor-General shall be President of the Federal Council, and he shall have no Vote unless they be equally divided.
  2. Each Member of the Federal Council may send such Number of Delegates, not more than five, as he shall think Necessary to represent him in his stead; and each Delegate shall be bound by the instructions given him by the Member of the Federal Council he represents.
  3. For greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the Federal Council does not constitute a part of the Government of the United States, but solely a Federal Agency of the several States.
Section 2. Meetings; quorum; governor-general to preside; officers; rules
  1. The Federal Council shall assemble from Time to Time, in such particular Configuration as shall concern the Portfolio corresponding to the Subject or Subjects at hand, at a Place of their choosing (such Place rotating among the States, in alphabetical order, reckoned according to the English name of each State, unless they shall appoint a permanent Place): Provided always, that the Federal Council, or a particular Configuration thereof, by Consensus, may meet at a different Place in Case of Epidemic, Invasion, or other public Danger.
  2. A Quorum shall consist of the Representation from each of the several States, and a Majority of said Quorum shall be Necessary to a Decision.
  3. The Governor-General or his Delegate shall, as President of the Federal Council, preside over meetings of the Federal Council, but he shall have no role in determining their Agenda. He shall, by virtue of that Office, be primus inter pares in relation to the Members of the Federal Council from the several States.
  4. At each Session, the Federal Council shall choose their Secretary, other needful Officers, and, in the absence of their President, a President pro Tempore; and with the concurrence of five-ninths of their Number, they shall adopt such Rules as they shall think Necessary for the Proper and Effective operation of their Proceedings.
Section 3. Powers; regulations, orders, and decisions of united states; review
  1. All Rules, Regulations, and Policy Directives of any Agency, Board, Commission, Department or other Entity of the Government of the United States shall at all Times be subject to the Review of the Federal Council.
  2. In reviewing such Rules, Regulations, and Policy Directives of any Agency, Board, Commission, Department or other Entity of the Government of the United States, the Federal Council shall have Power to approve or disapprove of them: Provided always, that no Rule, Regulation, or Policy Directive of any Agency, Board, Commission, Department or other Entity of the Government of the United States, under review by the Federal Council, shall be approved by them without the Consent of an absolute Majority of their Number, unless they shall, in their Rules, appoint a different Majority.
  3. If the Federal Council shall approve, it shall take effect, insofar as it shall be consistent with this Constitution and the statutory Laws of the United States; but if the Federal Council shall disapprove, it shall not take effect, and shall be null, void, unauthoritative, and entirely of no Force of any kind whatsoever in the United States and each of them, and in every Place subject to their Jurisdiction.
Section 4. Powers; foreign and military policies
  1. The Federal Council shall form and adopt the foreign Policy of the United States, and also the defense Policy of the same, in the Manner herein next provided; that is to say:
    1. The Governor-General shall propose and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Federal Council (provided that the chief Executives of no less than two-thirds of the several States concur), shall adopt the common foreign Policy of the United States and, in like Manner, the common defense Policy of the United States, each of which shall be carried out in such Manner and by such Agency, as herein next follows; that is to say:
      1. Insofar as the United States and the several States, respectively, may each legislate, they shall each carry out the obligations arising under the common foreign Policy of the United States that come within their respective Powers;—And
      2. Insofar as the United States and the several States, respectively, may each legislate, they shall each carry out the obligations arising under the common defense Policy of the United States that come within their respective Powers.
    2. If the Federal Council shall approve, it shall take effect, insofar as it shall be consistent with this Constitution and the statutory Laws of the United States, and the Constitution and statutory Laws of each of them: But if the Federal Council shall disapprove, it shall not take effect, and shall be null, void, unauthoritative, and entirely of no force of any kind whatsoever in the United States and each of them, and in every Place subject to their Jurisdiction.
Section 5. Powers; lieutenant governor-general; appointment
  1. The Governor-General shall nominate and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Federal Council, shall appoint the Lieutenant Governor-General of the United States, who shall serve for the same Term of four Years as the Governor-General that appointed him, and from then until his successor is chosen and qualified.
  2. Until such Time as a President of the Senate shall be chosen and qualified, the Powers and Duties pertaining to the Office of President of the Senate shall devolve upon their President pro Tempore.
Section 6. Powers; fixing salaries of officers and employees of united states government
  1. The Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Federal Council (provided two-thirds of the Members of the Federal Council concur), shall have Power to fix the Salaries of all Officers and Employees of the executive Department of the Government of the United States and those of other Persons employed by the same; of the Senators and Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled, and those of their Staff and other Persons employed by the legislative Department of the Government of the United States; of the Judges of the Courts of the United States, Clerks, and other Persons employed by the judicial Department of the Government of the United States; and of all other Persons employed by or under the Government of the United States or any Agency or Instrumentality thereof.
  2. No change in Salary shall take effect until a Period of three Years shall have intervened.
Section 7. Federal Council to sit as council of censors
In order that the freedom of this Union and Confœderacy may be preserved inviolate forever, the Federal Council shall, from Time to Time, sit as a Council of Censors; who shall meet together on the second Monday of January in the second Year after which a Governor-General shall have been elected and entered into Office, and in like Manner every two Years thereafter; the chief Executives of three-fourths of the respective States shall constitute a Quorum in every case except as to calling a Convention, in which case the whole Federal Council shall constitute such Quorum: And whose Duty it shall be to enquire whether this Constitution has been preserved inviolate in every part; and whether the legislative, executive, and judicial Departments of the Government of the United States have performed their Duty as Guardians of the States and of the People or assumed to themselves or exercised other or greater Powers than those to which they are actually delegated by this Constitution: They are also to enquire whether the public Taxes have been by the United States justly laid and collected in all parts of the United States, in what Manner of which the public Monies have been disposed, and whether the Laws of the United States have been duly and faithfully executed. For these Purposes they shall have Power to send for Persons, Papers, and Records; they shall have Authority to pass public Censures, and to recommend to the Congress the repealing of such Laws as may appear to them to have been enacted contrary to the Principles of this Constitution. These Powers they shall continue to have: The Federal Council sitting as a Council of Censors shall also have Power to call a Convention, provided two-thirds of their Number concur, to meet within two Years after their sitting, if there may appear to them an absolute Necessity of amending any article of this Constitution which may be defective, explaining such as may be thought not clearly expressed, and of adding such as may be Necessary for the preservation of the Rights and Happiness of the People and the Sovereignty and Independence of the several States: But the articles to be amended, and the amendments proposed, and such articles as are proposed to be added or abolished, shall be promulgated at least six Months before the Day appointed for the Election of such Convention, for the previous consideration of the States, that they may have an opportunity of instructing their Delegates on the Subject.
Section 8. Judicial Committee of the Federal Council
  1. The Federal Council, sitting as a Judicial Committee (such Committee being composed of one Representative from the Court of last Resort of each State, and one Representative from the federal Court of the United States, each of which shall cast the Vote of their respective Jurisdiction as may be instructed by the Court he represents), shall —as the final Court of Appeal on all Matters arising under the Constitution, Laws, and Treaties of the United States— have final Power of Review of all Decisions rendered by the federal Court and furthermore by any Court of the United States established under this Constitution: But such Review shall be exercised at the Discretion of the Judicial Committee of the Federal Council.
  2. In making their Decision, each Representative shall have one Vote; But the Representative of the federal Court shall not cast his Vote unless the Judicial Committee are equally divided.
  3. The Congress, acting under Article II-B, section 8, subsection B, of this Constitution, shall enact suitable Laws to carry the provisions of this section into effect.
Section 9. Federal Council; head of the union and confœderacy
The role of Head of State of the Union and Confœderacy that is by this Constitution ordained and established shall be vested exclusively in the Federal Council, collectively, in such configuration as shall consist of the chief Executive of each State and the Governor-General of the United States; the latter being primus inter pares in relation to the former.
Section 10. Federal Council; continuity of government; plans
The Federal Council shall be responsible for establishing and revising all Continuity of Government plans for the legislative, executive, and judicial Departments of the Government of the United States.
Section 11. Federal Council; additional powers
  1. The Federal Council, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Congress of the United States and the respective State Legislatures, may make Treaties coming within the Powers both of the United States and of each of them: But no such Treaty shall be binding on the United States or any of them until it shall be ratified by the Legislature thereof; nor shall it be enforced by the United States or any of them until it shall have been enacted into domestic Law of the Jurisdiction concerned by the Legislature thereof.
  2. The Federal Council shall have such other Powers and shall exercise them in such Manner as the Congress of the United States and the several State Legislatures, pursuant to this Constitution, may by Federal Treaty provide.
Part III. Federal commission
Section 1. Federal commission; composition; president; powers, provision of
  1. The Federal Council (provided the Delegations from at least two-thirds of the States concur) may propose and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Congress (provided a Majority of the total Number of Members of each House concur), may establish a Commission of the States in the name and form of a Federal Commission, which, if so established, shall be the executive and administrative Arm of the Federal Council; and, if established, shall be composed of a Number of Superintendents with corresponding Portfolio as the Federal Council (provided the Delegations from no less than three-fifths of the States concur) may from Time to Time think Necessary and Proper to establish: But at no time shall the Number of Superintendents exceed the Number of States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy.
  2. The Federal Council, provided an absolute Majority of the Members thereof concur, shall appoint the Superintendents; and the Superintendents shall be responsible, both individually and collectively, to the Federal Council for their Actions.
  3. The Superintendents shall have such Powers and Duties, and shall exercise them in such form as the Federal Council, pursuant to this Constitution, shall by Order-in-Council provide.
  4. For greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the Federal Commission, if established, does not constitute a part of the Government of the United States, but solely the executive and administrative arm of the Federal Council, accountable at all times to the said Federal Council.
Article III. The States
Section 1. States; powers; sovereignty; jurisdiction; rights; competence
  1. All Powers not actually delegated to the United States by this Constitution, nor expressly prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, to be exclusively by them exercised: Each State forever retains its Sovereignty, Freedom, and Independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction, and Right, which is not by this Constitution actually delegated to the United States: And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the Powers of each State shall, subject to the Constitution of the State (except where this Constitution by clear and express words shall require otherwise), extend throughout the whole Territory thereof to all Matters in relation to the Peace, Order, and good Government of the State, and the public Health, Welfare, Safety, Morals, and Prosperity, of all Inhabitants thereof; and, in like Manner, shall in each State also extend, to the complete and utter exclusion of the United States, to all Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects herein next Enumerated; that is to say:
    1. Raising Revenue, Necessary to pay the Debts, and provide for the Peace, Order, and Good Government of the State and for the public Health, Welfare, Safety, Morals, and Prosperity, of the Inhabitants thereof, and for Matters on which Power is by this Constitution reserved to the States respectively (or not otherwise expressly prohibited by this Constitution or the Constitution of the State concerned), and for Matters on which Power is devolved upon them by the United States; and for greater Certainty it is declared and shall be understood that in each State, pursuant to the Constitution and Laws thereof, the State Legislature shall have Power to raise Revenue by any Means and from any Source as they shall think Adequate and Advisable, and they shall have Power to prescribe the proper Manner, Means, and Sources in which Revenue may be raised by the various political Subdivisions of the State;
    2. Borrowing of Money on the sole credit of the State, pursuant to the Constitution and Laws thereof;
    3. Defining and punishing Corruption and abuse of Power of any kind whatever occurring in the State;
    4. Electors, and the Qualifications Necessary to be an Elector; political Parties; conduct of Elections, and Elections generally; and safeguarding the Purity of all Elections and all other Plebiscites conducted, or which may be conducted, at any Place within the Boundaries of the State;
    5. Municipal Institutions in the State; Counties, Cities, and Towns; other Institutions of municipal and local Government in the State; and political Subdivisions of the State generally;
    6. Courts established under the Constitution and Laws of the State, and Court procedure for the same; including their Rules of Procedure, both Criminal and Civil; and Rules of Evidence;
    7. Property, private and public; property Law; and Eminent Domain;
    8. Law of Torts and Malfeasance, and of Malpractice;
    9. Contract law;
    10. Civil law;
    11. Criminal Law; defining Crimes generally, and punishing the same; punishing Offenses against the Constitution and Laws of the United States, and in like Manner punishing Offenses against Treaties to which the State may be a Party; and Administration of Justice generally;
    12. Regulatory Law; and also the enactment and enforcement of Regulations and Orders being Necessary and Proper for the implementation of the Laws of the United States;
    13. Punishing Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and punishing Offenses against the Law of Nations, according to the Laws of the United States enacted on such Subjects;
    14. Prisons, Penitentiaries, and Reform Institutions;
    15. Internal Police; National Security; and border Security of the State;
    16. Militia, Military, and National Defense of the State; including raising and supporting an Army of the State, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; and providing and maintaining maritime and air Forces of the same;
    17. Emergency Management and civil Protection; and continuity of Government in and of the State;
    18. Education;
    19. Civil rights;
    20. Aboriginal peoples and lands;
    21. Supernatural peoples;
    22. Natural Resources of any kind whatever;
    23. Conservation, Fish and Wildlife, Forestry, Wetlands, and Environment;
    24. Agriculture, Ranching, Livestock, and Fisheries; Food and Food Safety;
    25. Animal, Plant, Fungal, and other Life;
    26. Parks and Recreation;
    27. Water, water Use; Waterways and Sea Coast within the territorial Waters of the State; and riparian Law;
    28. Pollution; Particulates; and other harmful Emissions and Substances;
    29. State Lands; Public Lands; and Land use;
    30. Regulation of Trade and Commerce within the State; Manufacturing; and the internal Market of the State;
    31. Laws relating consumer and occupational Health, Safety, and Welfare;
    32. Corporations, Securities, and Stocks; Banking, Industry, and Labor; Occupations; and the Regulation and Licensing of the same;
    33. Fire, Building, and Life Safety;
    34. Health and Healthcare; Hospitals, marine Hospitals, and Asylums; and Charities and benevolent Institutions; and the Regulation and Licensing of the same;
    35. Medicine, Pharmacy, Narcotics, and Drugs; and the Regulation and Licensing of the same;
    36. Quarantine;
    37. Insurance of any kind whatever;
    38. Estate and inheritance;
    39. Mortuaries and Cemeteries;
    40. Welfare, hardship Assistance, and Subsidies; and Pensions and supplementary Benefits of any kind whatever;
    41. Family, Marriage and Divorce; and Children;
    42. Firearms and Ammunition; Knives, Swords, and other Blades; kinetic Weapons; and Weapons generally;
    43. Immigration to and from the State, including prescribing the entry and other qualifications as may be Adequate and Advisable therefor: But in no Case whatsoever shall any Rule of Immigration enacted by a State be construed as to deny or disparage the Right of the Citizens of each State to the freedom of Movement between the several States and also within each of them;
    44. Naturalization of Aliens, pursuant to article II-B, section 8, subsection B, clause 3, of this Constitution;
    45. Asylum and Refugees;
    46. Energy, electricity Generation and Transmission; ionizing Radiation, nuclear Energy, and radioactive Materials;
    47. Telecommunication, Television, Telegraph, Radio, and Interlink;
    48. Critical Infrastructure, and Infrastructure generally, including Communications, Transportation, Pipelines, and all such Works that move Goods, Services, Information, and People;
    49. Public Works; internal Improvements and Subsidies;
    50. Transportation and Railroads; air Traffic and State Airspace;
    51. Harbors, Beacons, Buoys, and Lighthouses; Navigation and Shipping; and Ferries within the State, between that State and another, and between that State and any Foreign State;
    52. Public Service Corporations and Public Utilities generally; and all Corporations engaged in furnishing Gas, Oil, or Electricity for Light, Fuel, or Power; or in furnishing Water for Irrigation, fire Protection, or other public Purposes; or in furnishing, for profit or not, hot or cold Air or Steam for heating or cooling Purposes; or engaged in collecting, transporting, treating, purifying and disposing of Sewage through a System, for Profit or not; or in transmitting Messages or furnishing public telegraph or telephone Service, and all Corporations operating as common Carriers, relative to Matters herein next Enumerated; that is to say: All Services, Products, Commodities and other Matters touching upon Classes 46 through 52; and Fixing and regulating of the Standard of Rates, Fares, Tolls, Rentals, Charges or Classifications, or any of them, levied, or which may be levied, by any Public Service Corporation or other public Utility for any Service, Product or Commodity touching upon Classes 46 through 52;
    53. Culture, Sport, and Tourism;
    54. Insignia, Flag, and other Symbols of the State and political subdivisions of the State; and all Protocols and other Rules related thereto, including their relation and precedence vis-á-vis the Insignia, Flag, and other Symbols of the United States;
    55. Time zones, and Language;
    56. Any Matter of a local or private Nature;—And
    57. Any Matter that does not directly come within the Classes of Subjects that are, by clear and express words of this Constitution, actually delegated to the United States, and any Matter not directly coming within the Classes of Subjects actually Enumerated in section eight of article II-B of this Constitution; Treaties embracing any Matter touching upon the forgoing Classes of Subjects and all other Matters not directly coming within the Classes of Subjects that are, by clear and express words of this Constitution, actually delegated to the United States; all Matters hitherto undiscovered or otherwise unknown to this Constitution and not repugnant to the Constitution of the State; and all Laws which may be Necessary and Proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers and all other Powers that are neither actually delegated to the United States by this Constitution nor expressly prohibited by it to the States respectively.
  2. The Power of the States, respectively, in relation to all Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects Enumerated in this section, shall be absolute and supreme; on all Matters touching upon the Classes of Subjects Enumerated in this section, and on all Matters neither directly coming within those Classes of Subjects actually Enumerated in article II-B, section 8, of this Constitution nor, by clear and express words of this Constitution, expressly prohibited to the States, the Power of the States respectively is, and shall forever remain, Supreme; and, except to enforce compliance with this Constitution, the United States shall question no Law, Action, or Policy of any State touching upon any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects Enumerated in this section or touching upon any Matter not coming within the actual Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects in article II-B, section 8, of this Constitution and not by clear and express words of the same actually prohibited to the States respectively: Provided, that for greater Certainty it is declared and shall be understood that, except where this Constitution by clear and express words shall actually require otherwise, the judicial Power of the United States shall never be construed as to extend, in any way whatsoever, to any Question, Dispute, Cause, Case, or Controversy, in Law or Equity, or otherwise, in relation to any Law, Action, or Policy of any State touching any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects Enumerated in this section or any Matter not coming within the actual Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects in article II-B, section 8, of this Constitution nor by clear and express words of the same prohibited to the States respectively. The United States shall guarantee to each State perfect and unimpaired Sovereignty as to all Matters of internal Government; and the police Power shall forever belong to the States respectively, and to this end the police Power shall, in perpetuity, be exclusively to and by them reserved and exercised.
  3. The People of each State may include in the Constitution of their State a prohibition against the Government thereof (which they may, at their choosing, designate to extend to include any or all political Subdivisions or other Instrumentalities of their State) as to the exercise any of the Powers, or any combination of them, that are by this Constitution reserved to the States respectively; or qualify the exercise of said Powers, or any of them, on such Terms and under such Conditions as to them shall seem most effective to secure their Safety and Happiness.
  4. Except by actual Amendment to this Constitution, at no time shall the Power of the United States be increased or the Power of the States reduced beyond that which, by this Constitution alone, is expressly and unequivocally provided: And no State shall ever be by the United States deprived of any Competence or Power without the Consent of all of the several States.
  5. For greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood:
    1. That no interpretation of this Constitution by any Court or other Authority that would effect an increase in the Power, Authority, or Competence of the United States, or would effect a decrease in the Power, Authority, or Competence of any State, or would effect sovereignty on the Government of the United States, shall be anything but null, void, unauthoritative, and of no force of any kind whatsoever throughout the United States and each of them, and in every Place subject to their Jurisdiction;
    2. That, except where this Constitution alone by clear and express words shall require otherwise, in and for each State, the Constitution thereof, and all Laws made in strict pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under its Authority, in relation to any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects Enumerated in this section, shall be the supreme Law of that State, any Thing in any Law or Treaty of the United States to the contrary notwithstanding;
    3. That, except where this Constitution alone by clear and express words shall permit otherwise, the United States shall make, endorse, or enforce no Law or Treaty that, directly or otherwise, touches upon any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects Enumerated in this section;
    4. That, except in exercising exclusive Legislation over the District constituting the Seat of the Government of the United States or over any other Territory belonging to the United States, any Law or Treaty of the United States that, directly or otherwise, touches upon any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects Enumerated in this section shall be ultra vires the United States, and shall, in every one of the United States and in every Place subject to their Jurisdiction (the said District and other Territory belonging to the United States excepted), be altogether null, void, unauthoritative, and of no force of any kind whatsoever;
    5. That in each and for State the general police Power is, and shall in perpetuity be, reserved to the States respectively, to the exclusion of the United States;
    6. That the several State Legislatures shall have Power to enforce this section by Necessary and Proper legislation;—And
    7. This section shall be liberally construed in order to effect its general Purpose and Intent.
  6. In this section:
    1. “United States” shall be understood to mean the legislative, executive, judicial, and military Departments, or any of them, as the case may be, of the Government of the United States, as well as any Agency or Instrumentality thereof: Provided always, that for the Purposes of this section, the meaning of the Terms “United States” and “every Place subject to their Jurisdiction” shall not be understood as to include the District constituting the Seat of the Government of the United States.
    2. “District constituting the Seat of the Government of the United States” shall be understood to mean that District which is authorized by article II-B, section 8, subsection B, clause 4 of this Constitution.
    3. “Territory belonging to the United States” shall have the same meaning as provided in section 5, subsection B, of this article.
Section 2. States; personality; equality; measures; union; principal and agent
  1. Each State shall possess international legal personality.
  2. The United States shall respect the equality of the respective States before this Constitution as well as their national Identities, inherent in their fundamental Structures, political and constitutional, inclusive of regional and local self-Government. The United States shall respect their essential State functions, including ensuring and safeguarding the territorial Integrity of each of them, and guaranteeing to each State its Sovereignty over the Peace, Order, and Good Government; internal Police; and national Security over all Places subject to its Jurisdiction;—And in like Manner ensuring and guaranteeing to each State its Sovereignty over the Safety, Health, Morals, and Welfare of its Inhabitants.
  3. In exercising the Powers delegated to the United States, the content and form of Action taken by the same shall not exceed the absolute Minimum amount expressly Necessary to achieve the Objectives of this Constitution: But at all Times and in every Case, the United States shall act solely as the common Agent of the several States.
Section 3. States; public acts, records, and judicial proceedings; full faith and credit
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State: And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
Section 4. States; citizens; privileges and immunities; union
  1. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States: And, any Law or Thing in the Constitution of any State to the contrary notwithstanding, the Citizens of each State, shall have, in the several States, inter alia, the right:
    1. To move and reside freely within the territory of any of the several States;
    2. To enjoy, in the territory of a foreign State in which the State of which he is a Citizen is not represented, the protection of the diplomatic and consular Authorities of any State included within this Union and Confœderacy on the same conditions as the Citizens of that State;—And
    3. To petition the Congress, Courts, or Government of the United States for a Redress of Grievance in any of the official Languages of the different States and to obtain a reply in the same Language.
  2. A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the chief Executive of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
  3. These rights shall be exercised pursuant to the conditions and limits prescribed by this Constitution and by the Measures adopted in strict pursuance thereof by the different States.
  4. The States respectively shall adopt such Measures as they shall think Necessary and Proper to secure this protection.
  5. A State may provide for the suspension of these and other Rights for Persons convicted of Felony or domestic Violence.
Section 5. Union; admission of new states; disposal of territory
  1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union and Confœderacy; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress; nor any State be admitted into this Union and Confœderacy but on an equal footing with the several States: Provided always, that whenever a new State shall be admitted into this Union and Confœderacy, all Territory and other public or otherwise raw Land located therein belonging to the United States immediately prior to the Time such State be admitted into this Union and Confœderacy (including all Title, Jurisdiction, Powers, Rights, Privileges and Immunities, and Benefits of any kind whatsoever held by the United States thereon) shall be immediately surrendered and ceded to that State upon its admission into this Union and Confœderacy: And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the provisions of this section shall be construed as to apply to the several States on the same Terms as to new States.
  2. The Congress, pursuant to section twelve of article II-B of this Constitution, shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
Section 6. States; collective self-defense; union to states, responsibilities of
An armed attack against one or more States included within this Union and Confœderacy shall be considered as an attack against them all and consequently, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them shall assist the State or States so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other States, such action as it deems Necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the United States. Likewise, the United States shall protect each State included within this Union and Confœderacy against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the chief Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.
Section 7. States; sovereignty, perfect and unimpaired; internal government
  1. The United States shall guarantee to each State its Sovereignty, Freedom and Independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction and Right, which is not by clear and express words of this Constitution actually delegated to the United States.
  2. The United States shall also guarantee to each State perfect and unimpaired Sovereignty as to all matters of internal Government: And to this end, each State shall be entitled to the full and complete Sovereignty and Jurisdiction as to its reserved Powers over all Places within its Boundaries.
Article IV. Federal referendum
Section 1. Federal referendum
The Congress, or the Legislatures of no less than two States, may order the referral to the several States of any Measure, or Item, Section, or Part of any Measure, enacted by the Congress; but to allow opportunity for Referendum petitions, no Act passed by the Congress shall be operative until ninety Days after the close of the Session of the Congress enacting such Measure, except such as require earlier operation to provide Appropriations for the Support and Maintenance of the Departments of the Government of the United States and the Institutions thereof; Provided, that no such emergency Measure shall be considered passed by the Congress unless it shall state in a separate Section why it is Necessary that it shall become immediately Operative, and shall be Approved in each House of the Congress by the affirmative Votes of three-fourths of the total Members of the Senate and two-thirds of the total Members of the House of Representatives, taken by roll call of Yeas and Nays, and also Approved by the Governor-General or the Federal Council, as the case may be, as to under whichever subsection, A or B, of section 8 of article II-B of this Constitution such Measure was enacted; and should such Measure be disapproved by him or them, as the case may be, it shall not become Law unless it shall be Approved again in each House of the Congress by the Votes of four-fifths of the total Members of the Senate and three-fourths of the total Members of the House of Representatives, taken by roll call of Yeas and Nays: Provided always, that when approved in two-thirds of the several States, by the Legislature and the chief Executive of the State in the Manner as prescribed by the Constitution and Laws of that State for the enactment of Bills, the referred Measure, or Item, Section, or Part of any Measure so referred shall become a Law of the United States as in the Case as if it were passed by both Houses of the Congress and approved by the Governor-General or the Federal Council, as the case may be.
Section 2. Federal referendum; application
In no Case of any kind whatsoever shall the provisions of the preceding section be utilized for the proposal or ratification of amendments to this Constitution.
Article V. Mode of amending
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of all the Members of each House shall deem it Necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislature of each State; Provided that no State Government, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
Article VI. Validity and supremacy
Section 1. Constitution; supreme law
  1. This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in strict Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, in strict Pursuance of this Constitution, shall be the supreme Law of the United States, and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding; Provided always:—
    1. That no Law or Treaty of the United States not made in strict Pursuance of this Constitution shall be enforced or otherwise construed as having force of Law; and the Judges of the United States shall be bound thereby to refuse their enforcement, any Thing in the Laws or Treaties of the United States, or any other Rule, Regulation, Order, or other such Thing of the United States to the Contrary notwithstanding;
    2. That insofar as shall touch upon any Matter coming within the Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects in article III, section one, of this Constitution, or otherwise not coming within the Classes of Subjects actually enumerated in article II-B, section eight, of this Constitution, and not otherwise expressly prohibited to the States respectively by this Constitution alone, in and for each State the Constitution and Laws thereof, and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under its Authority, shall continue to be the supreme Law of that State, and the Judges of the United States shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Laws or Treaties of the United States, or any other Rule, Regulation, Order, or other such Thing of the United States, to the Contrary notwithstanding;
    3. That except where this Constitution by clear and express words shall permit otherwise, the United States shall have no Power and shall make no Treaty, Law, Rule, Regulation, Order, or any other Thing having force of Law, as the Case may be, insofar as it shall touch, directly or otherwise, upon any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in article III, section one, of this Constitution, or otherwise not coming within the actual Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects in article II-B, section eight, of this Constitution, and not otherwise expressly prohibited to the States by this Constitution alone, as being Powers reserved exclusively to the States respectively, any Thing in the Laws or Treaties of the United States, and all Opinions and judicial Decisions of the United States to the Contrary notwithstanding;
    4. That, in each State the Constitution thereof (pursuant only to the clear and express requirements of this Constitution; and insofar as it shall not be expressly repugnant to this Constitution) shall continue to be the supreme Law of that State;
    5. That no Treaty of the United States shall displace or act to displace any of the Powers or Competence reserved to the States;—And
    6. That, insofar as they shall not be repugnant to this Constitution, the Laws and Treaties of the United States, insofar as they shall directly and only embrace any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects actually Enumerated in article II-B, section eight, of this Constitution, shall prevail over the Constitution and all Laws and Treaties of any State directly embracing the same Matter; and in like Manner, insofar as they shall not be repugnant to this Constitution, the Constitution and all Laws and Treaties of each State, insofar as they shall touch upon any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in article III, section one, of this Constitution, or not otherwise coming within the Classes of Subjects actually Enumerated in article II-B, section eight, of this Constitution, and not otherwise expressly prohibited to the States by this Constitution alone, shall prevail over all Laws and Treaties of the United States touching upon the same such Matter.
  2. Whenever there shall arise an inconsistency between this Constitution and a Law, Treaty, Regulation, Rule, Order, or Policy (or any other Thing having force of Law) of the United States, the former shall prevail, and the latter, insofar as to the inconsistency, shall be invalid;—Likewise: Whenever there shall arise an inconsistency between this Constitution or any Law or Treaty of the United States made in strict pursuance thereof, and the Constitution of a State or any Law or Treaty of the same, the former shall prevail, and the latter, only insofar as to the express and actual inconsistency, shall be invalid.
Article VII. Ratification
The Ratification of the Legislatures of twelve States shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution and Confœderacy between the States so ratifying the same.
Article VIII. Final and transitory provisions
Section 1. Constitution; office; oath or affirmation; qualification
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the respective States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States or any of them, or any Place subject to their Jurisdiction.
Section 2. Constitution; defense of constitutional order
  1. The Union and Confœderacy established by this Constitution shall be a republican and Fœderal body politic; a community, by Fœderal Compact, of sovereign States that, by a free and voluntary choice made by each of them, respectively, have entered into Confederation and Union with them severally;
  2. The legislative Power shall be bound by the constitutional Order, the executive and judicial Powers by Law and Justice;
  3. For greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood:
    1. That all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, Property, and the pursuit of Happiness;
    2. That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the governed;
    3. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles and organizing its Powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness;
    4. That Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience has shown that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed;
    5. That when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security;
    6. That when any Person or any Number of them shall seek to abolish this constitutional Order in any Manner inconsistent with this Constitution, the People of each State shall have the Right, and the Duty, to resist such Person or Persons, if no other remedy is available;—And
    7. That the Union and Confœderacy is the common Agent of the several States, and each State is the common Agent of the People thereof.
Section 3. Constitutional interpretation; living constitution theory prohibited
No change in the operation of this Constitution shall work except by actual amendment thereto.
Section 4. National progressive party; disqualification from office
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or Elector of Governor-General, or hold any Office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any of them, or under any Place subject to their Jurisdiction, who shall have been a Member of, or who shall have given aid and comfort to, the National Progressive Party; or had otherwise been found to have been in sympathy with their Platform or Policies: But the Congress may by a Vote of two-thirds of the total Number of Members in each House remove such Disability.
Section 5. Provisional government to continue until successors chosen and qualified
  1. The institutions under the Provisional United States shall continue, and the Officers in the said Institutions shall remain in their respective Offices, until an Election under this Constitution shall have intervened and successors chosen therein shall have qualified.
  2. The Senators and Representatives in Congress and the Governor-General shall enter into their respective Offices on the fourth Day of March in the Year immediately following the Elections for the said Offices: But the next Term of Office of the Senators and Representatives in Congress, and each Term thereafter, shall thenceforth commence on the second Monday in January in the Year immediately following the Election of such Senators and Representatives in Congress.
Section 6. Laws and treaties enacted under previous constitution; effect; exceptions
  1. The Laws of the United States enacted under the previous Constitution, provided they shall not be repugnant to this Constitution, shall in each State continue to be the Law of the United States: Provided always, that all such Laws, insofar as they shall embrace or otherwise touch upon Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in article III, section 1, of this Constitution, or embrace or otherwise touch upon any other Power or Powers that are by this Constitution reserved to the States respectively, shall in each State at all Times be subject to the revision and control by the Legislature thereof. But in Case of any inconsistency in any State between any Law of the United States enacted under the previous Constitution and the Constitution and Laws of that State (insofar as such Law of the United States shall embrace or otherwise touch upon Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in article III, section 1, of this Constitution, or embrace or otherwise touch upon any other Power or Powers that are by this Constitution reserved to the States respectively), the latter shall prevail, and the former, insofar as to the inconsistency, shall be invalid.
  2. Every Treaty of the United States entered into under the Authority of the previous Constitution shall expire ninety Days after the adjournment sine die of the first Congress assembled under this Constitution, unless the Senate shall, during that same session, choose to renew their ratification of the Treaty, provided that two-thirds of the total Number of Senators concur; but any Treaty of the United States being repugnant to this Constitution shall be null, void, unauthoritative, and be of no force of any kind in the United States and in every Place subject to their Jurisdiction: And any Treaty of the United States entered into under the Authority of the previous Constitution which shall embrace or otherwise touch upon any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in article III, section 1, of this Constitution, or otherwise touching on any Matter not coming within the actual Enumeration of the Classes of Subjects in article II-B, section 8, of this Constitution also not prohibited by the same to the States, shall be null, void, unauthoritative, and of no force of any kind in each State unless the Legislature thereof shall ratify such Treaty, in the Manner prescribed by the Constitution and Laws of that State; but if there be no prescribed Manner in the Constitution and Laws of that State, then, until such prescription shall be made, ratification shall be by each House of the Legislature, provided two-thirds of the total Number of Members in each House concur.
Section 7. Ratification; elections for senators, representatives, and governor-general
When twelve States shall have ratified this Constitution, in the Manner before specified, the Federal Council under the Provisional Constitution, shall prescribe the Time for holding the Election for Governor-General; and, for the Meeting of the Electors for Governor-General; and, for counting the Votes, and inaugurating the Governor-General. They shall, also, prescribe the Time for holding the first Election for Members of Congress under this Constitution, and the Time for assembling the same. Until the assembling of the Congress, the Federal Council, as established under the Provisional Constitution, shall continue to exercise the legislative Powers granted to them and, until the assembling of the said Congress, they shall also exercise the legislative Powers granted to the Congress under this Constitution; not extending beyond the Time limited by the Constitution of the Provisional Government; and until such Time as a Governor-General shall be chosen and qualified in the Manner prescribed by this Constitution, the Powers and Duties of the Office of Governor-General shall be exercised by the President pro Tempore of the United States.
Section 8. Union and states; taxing power; immunities

For further Clarity, it shall be understood:—
  1. That, the reserved Powers of the States, such as the right to pass Laws; to give effect to Laws through executive Action; to administer Justice through the Courts, and to employ all Agencies which may be Necessary for legitimate Purposes of State government, are not proper Subjects of the taxing Power of Congress;—And
  2. That, the enumerated Powers of the United States, such as the right to pass Laws; to give effect to Laws through executive Action; to administer Justice through the Courts, and to employ all Agencies which may be Necessary for legitimate Purposes of the Federal government, are not proper Subjects of the taxing Power of the States respectively.

Section 9. Allied control council; continuance
The Allied Control Council shall, throughout the United States and every Place subject to their Jurisdiction, continue to enforce the Directives issued by the Provisional United States until such Time as the Federal Council, acting by unanimity, shall otherwise direct.
Article IX. Amendments
Title I. Declaration of Rights
Section 1. Short title
This Title may be cited as the “Declaration of Rights.”
Section 2. United States; fœderal system; clarification

For greater Certainty, it is expressly declared and shall be understood:

  1. That the several States composing the United States of North Aegea shall not be united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general Government; but that, by Compact, under the style and title of a Treaty Establishing a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general Government for special, limited purposes, delegated to that Government certain definite Powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general Government assumes undelegated Powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force; that to this Compact each State acceded as a State, and is an integral party, its co-States forming, as to itself, the other Party; that the general Government, created by this Compact, was not made the exclusive or final Judge of the extent of the Powers delegated to itself, since that would have made its discretion, and not this Constitution, the measure of its Powers; but that, as in all other cases of Compact among Powers having no common Judge, each Party has an equal right to Judge for itself, as well of infractions as of the Mode and Measure of Redress. That this Constitution, having expressly and intentionally delegated to the Congress a Power to punish the crimes of Treason, of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States, of piracies and other felonies committed on the high Seas, and of offenses against the Law of Nations, and no other Crimes, whatsoever; and it being true as a general Principle, and article III, section one of this Constitution having also declared, that “All Powers not expressly and intentionally delegated to the United States by this Constitution, nor expressly prohibited by it to the States, are exclusively reserved, in perpetuity, to the States respectively: Each State forever retains its Sovereignty, Freedom, and Independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction, and Right, which is not by clear and express words of this Constitution delegated to the United States,” therefore each and every Act of the Congress and each and every Treaty of the United States which assumes:
    1. To create, define, or punish Crimes, other than those so expressly and intentionally by this Constitution alone come within the actual Competence of the United States to legislate;—Or
    2. To intrude on, preempt, obstruct, or otherwise displace any Law or Thing in the Constitution of any State relating to any Matter coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in article III, section 1 of this Constitution, and in like Manner as to any Matter not coming within in the actual Enumeration of Classes of Subjects in article II-B, section 8 of this Constitution, that is to say those Matters that either come within the Enumeration of Classes of Subjects that are expressly and intentionally reserved exclusively to the States or otherwise not coming within the actual Enumeration of Classes of Subjects that are expressly and intentionally delegated to the United States, respectively, such Matters in both cases being altogether expressly and intentionally excepted out of the legislative, executive, and judicial Powers of the United States;
    —is altogether null, void, unauthoritative, and of no force whatsoever;
  2. That the Powers of the general Government as resulting from this Constitution to which the States are Parties, as limited by the plain Sense and Intention of this Constitution, as no further valid than they are expressly and intentionally authorized by the Delegations expressly and actually enumerated in this Constitution; and that, in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other Powers, not expressly and intentionally Delegated by this Constitution, the States, which are the sole Parties thereto, shall enact suitable Laws for arresting and punishing the progress of the evil, and for preserving, protecting, and defending, within their respective limits, the Authorities, Rights, and Liberties, appertaining to them;
  3. That this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and all Treaties to which the United States or any of them are party, shall be construed solely pursuant to the doctrine of strict Constructionism, all other doctrines of judicial and legal Philosophies to the contrary notwithstanding;
  4. That the general Government of the United States is not and shall never be sovereign, and that the existence and Authority of the United States is supremely dependent on the will and pleasure of the several States comprising the said United States: The final arbiter and interpreter of this Constitution and the Union and Confœderacy established thereby is, and forever shall be, the confederates themselves, that is to say the States —And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that, whenever an interpretation of this Constitution, or any part or provision thereof, held identically by the supreme Courts of no less than ten States shall be inconsistent with an interpretation of the same by the federal Court of the United States, the interpretation held by the former shall prevail, and that held by the latter, insofar as to the inconsistency, shall be displaced as unauthoritative, void, and of no force of any kind whatsoever throughout the United States, and every Place subject to their Jurisdiction;—And
  5. That, insofar as this Constitution, by clear and express words, does not otherwise actually prohibit, the enforcement of the Laws and Treaties of the United States shall be incumbent on the States respectively.

Section 3. United States; municipal governments; fœderal interaction; prohibition
The United States shall have no relations, shall have no contact, and shall conduct no business of any kind whatsoever with any municipality or other political subdivision of any State without the Consent of the State Legislature: All relations, contact, and business of the United States to be had, or which may be had, in a State with any municipality or other political subdivision of that State shall be conducted with solely with the Government of that State.
Section 4. Freedom of religion; speech; press; assembly; petition
Congress shall make no Law respecting an establishment of Religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the Right of the People to the freedom of Speech, or of the Press; or the Right of the People peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances: And every Person may freely speak, write, and publish on all Subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that Right. The right of the People to the freedom of Speech and of the Press shall be extended to all Mediums, however scarce.
Section 5. Keeping and bearing arms; militia; prohibited possessors
  1. A well-regulated Militia, composed of the body of the People, being the true and proper security of a free State, no Law shall be made abridging or restricting the free exercise of the Right of the People of each State to keep and bear Arms for the purposes of the defense of self, or of a third-party; or of his own State or of the United States; or for the purpose of sustainable management of Wildlife in and by each State through the well-regulated taking of Game by the People; or for the purpose of Sport or any other lawful Purpose.
  2. For greater Certainty it is declared and shall be understood that no Law for disarming the People or any of them, shall ever be passed or enforced, except in the following cases herein next enumerated; that is to say:
    1. That, in each State, pursuant to the Constitution thereof, the Legislature may by general Law provide for the temporary or permanent suspension of this Right to Persons convicted of treason, felony, or domestic violence;—And
    2. That, in each State, pursuant to the Constitution and Laws thereof, no Person, having been found by a Court of Record in that State (such Court being of competent Jurisdiction) to constitute a Danger to himself or other persons on account of serious mental Illness, shall exercise the Right to keep and bear Arms until such Time as he shall have been found by a Court of Record in the same State (such Court being of competent Jurisdiction) to no longer constitute a Danger to himself or other persons.
  3. For greater Certainty it is declared and shall be understood that each State shall have Power to make Treaties with the several States or any of them, for the purposes of reciprocity, information sharing, and for other Purposes in furtherance of the Powers that are by this Constitution reserved to the States respectively; and the Consent of the Congress shall not be necessary to effect any such Agreement.
  4. For greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that nothing in this section shall ever be construed as authorizing:
    1. The United States to make any Law or Treaty respecting the Right of the People to keep and bear Arms, and for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the States respectively, shall have exclusive Power to make all Laws respecting the Right of the People to keep and bear Arms: But no Law or Treaty inconsistent with the provisions of this section shall be passed or enforced; and the Judges of the United States and of each of them shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Laws or Treaties of the United States, and any Thing in the Constitution or Laws or Treaties of any State to the contrary notwithstanding;
    2. Any person not a Citizen of any of the United States to enjoy or exercise the Right to keep and bear Arms within any of the United States or any Place subject to their Jurisdiction;—And
    3. Individuals or Corporations to organize, maintain, or employ an armed Body of men anywhere in the any of the United States, or any Place subject to their Jurisdiction.
Section 6. Right to privacy; search and seizure; warrants
  1. The Right of the People to be secure in their Persons, Houses, Papers, Effects, and Affairs, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable Cause, supported by Oath or Affirmation, and particularly describing the Place to be searched, and the Persons or Things to be seized.
  2. The issuance or execution of general Warrants is hereby prohibited. Any Official or Officer of the United States or any of them, or of any Place subject to their Jurisdiction, who shall issue or otherwise execute a general Warrant is guilty of Sedition and shall, on conviction, suffer like punishment as may be prescribed for Treason.
Section 7. Criminal prosecutions; by jury; held in and by state where committed
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in and by the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
Section 8. Criminal prosecutions; speedy trial; jury; witnesses; information; counsel
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the Right to a speedy and public Trial, by an impartial Jury of the State and District wherein the Crime shall have been committed, which District shall have been previously ascertained by Law, and to be informed of the Nature and Cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the Witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
Section 9. Criminal prosecutions; bail; fines; cruel and unusual punishment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual Punishments inflicted.
Section 10. Criminal prosecution; double jeopardy; due process; self-incrimination
No Person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous Crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in Cases arising in the land, air, or naval Forces, or in the Militia, when in actual Service in time of War or public Danger; nor shall any Person be subject for the same Offense to be twice put in Jeopardy of Life or Limb; nor shall he be compelled in any criminal Case to be a Witness against himself, nor be deprived of Life, Liberty, or Property, without due process of Law.
Section 11. Common law; civil suits; jury, trial by; preserved
In suits at common Law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the Right of Trial by Jury shall be preserved, and no Fact tried by a Jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court in the United States, than according to the Rules of the common Law.
Section 12. Right to property; eminent domain; clarification
  1. Private Property shall not be taken or damaged for public Use, without just compensation; and private Property shall never be taken or damaged for private Use: And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that, within the boundaries of any State, the United States shall never have or exercise the Power of eminent Domain.
  2. For purposes of satisfying the requirements of this section, “public Use” shall not include the taking or damaging of private Property for transfer to a private Entity for the purpose of economic Development or enhancement of tax Revenue; —And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that private Property shall not otherwise be taken or damaged but solely for any of the following Uses herein next enumerated, that is to say:
    1. Canals, aqueducts, flumes, ditches or pipes, for conducting water for the use of the inhabitants or for drainage of a State, county, city, town or village;
    2. Raising the banks of streams, removing obstructions therefrom, or widening, deepening or straightening their channels;
    3. Roads, streets, highways and alleys, and all other public thruways for the benefit of a State, county, city, town or village, or the inhabitants thereof, which is authorized by the State Legislature;
    4. Wharves, docks, piers, chutes, booms, ferries, bridges, toll roads, byroads, plank and turnpike roads and highways;
    5. Steam, horse, mule, electric and cable railroads or railways;
    6. Telegraph and telephone lines and conduits for public communication;
    7. Electric light and power transmission lines, pipe lines used for supplying gas, and all transportation, transmission and intercommunication facilities of public service agencies;
    8. Aviation fields, airports, and spaceports;
    9. Reservoirs, canals, ditches, flumes, aqueducts and pipes, for the use of a State, county, city, town or village, or its inhabitants, or for public transportation for supplying mines and other industrial enterprises, farms and farm neighborhoods with water for irrigation, domestic and other needful purposes, and for generating electricity;
    10. Draining and reclaiming lands, and for floating logs and lumber on non-navigable streams;
    11. Roads, tunnels, ditches, flumes, pipes and dumping places for working mines, and outlets, natural or otherwise, for the flow, deposit or conduct of tailings or refuse matter from mines, and an occupancy in common by the owners or possessors of different mines, or any place for the flow, deposit or conduct of tailings or refuse matter from their several mines;
    12. Byroads leading from highways to residences and farms;
    13. Private canals, ditches, flumes, aqueducts and pipes for conducting water from natural water courses or bodies or from public sources where the lands to be irrigated are not directly reached by such natural water course or public sources;
    14. Pipe lines to carry petroleum, petroleum products or any other liquid;—And
    15. Rights of way, station grounds, pits, yards, sidetracks and other Necessary facilities for railways.
  3. In and for each State, the exercise of the Power of eminent Domain shall be in pursuance of the Constitution and Laws thereof and, where applicable, this Constitution.
  4. For further Clarity it shall be understood that the Right to private Property shall extend to no Person not a Citizen of any of the United States, but in a Manner to be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof.
Section 13. Quartering of soldiers
No Soldier shall, in time of Peace be quartered in any House, without the Consent of the Owner, nor in time of War, but in a Manner to be prescribed by Law.
Section 14. Slavery; prohibition
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for Crime whereof the Party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any of them, or any Place subject to their Jurisdiction.
Section 15. United States; titles of nobility
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any Present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State, but in a Manner to be prescribed by Law: Provided always, that nothing in this section shall ever be construed as to affect or otherwise apply to the Crown of the State of Hawaiʻi.
Section 16. Enumeration of rights not to disparage others retained
The enumeration in this Constitution of certain Rights shall not be construed as to deny or disparage others retained by the People.
Section 17. Equal application and protection of the law
No Person shall be exempt from the Law; and neither the United States or any of them shall deny to any Person within their respective Jurisdictions the equal protection of their Laws.
Section 18. Non-interference in internal or domestic affairs of states
Neither the Government or People of any State shall interfere or intervene in the internal or domestic Affairs of another State. Nor shall the United States interfere or intervene in the internal or domestic Affairs of any of them, except to ensure compliance with this Constitution, and only in the Manner prescribed by the same. In and for each State the Legislature thereof shall enact suitable Laws to carry the provisions of this section into effect. The provisions of this section shall not be construed as to prohibit any State from coming to the Aid of another State in the Manner prescribed by this Constitution.
Section 19. Provisions of title mandatory
The provisions of this Title shall be mandatory and self-executing;—Provided always, that no Amendment to this Constitution shall be made which shall negatively affect the composition of the Union and Confœderacy of the several member States; or reducing their Powers or their participation in the Governance of the Union: Provided further, in addition to the Manner prescribed in article V of this Constitution in which amendments to this Constitution may be proposed and ratified, no amendment to this Constitution repealing this Title, in whole or in part, shall be made without the Consent in each State by the Legislature thereof and the approval in each State by five-sevenths of the qualified and registered Electors thereof.
Section 20. Provisions of title; federal legislation prohibited; state legislation supreme
The United States or any of them shall make or enforce no Law or any other Thing having force of Law altering or abridging the Rights and Liberties guaranteed under this Title, or prohibiting the free Exercise thereof. The Laws of each State in relation to carrying out the provisions of this Title shall be binding on the United States in that State, that is to say self-executing, any Law or Treaty of the United States to the contrary notwithstanding.
Section 21. Enforcement; construction
  1. The several State Legislatures, exclusive of the United States, shall have Power to enforce this Title by appropriate legislation: But the Congress shall have Power to enforce within the Territories of the United States this Title by appropriate legislation.
  2. The provisions of this Title shall not be construed as granting to the United States any additional Powers beyond those which are by clear and express words of this Constitution delegated to the United States: And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the exceptions here or elsewhere in this Constitution, made in favor of particular Rights, shall not be so construed as to diminish the just importance of other Rights retained by the People, or as to enlarge the Powers delegated by this Constitution to the United States; but either as an actual limitation of such Powers, or as inserted merely for greater Caution or Clarity, or both Caution and Clarity.
Title II. Intergovernmental affairs
Section 1. Short title
This title may be cited as the “Intergovernmental Affairs and Fœderalism Enhancement Amendment.”
Section 2. Fœderalism; clarification
Except where this Constitution by clear and express words shall require otherwise, on all Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in section one of article III of this Constitution, and all Matters not expressly coming within the Classes of Subjects enumerated in section eight of article II-B of this Constitution, the United States shall in each State (in all Cases whatsoever) defer to the Constitution and Laws of that State, any Law or Treaty of the United States to the contrary notwithstanding.
Section 3. Enforcement; construction
  1. The several State Legislatures, exclusive of the United States, shall have Power to enforce this Title by appropriate legislation.
  2. The provisions of this Title shall not be construed as granting to the United States any additional Powers beyond those which are by clear and express words of this Constitution actually delegated to the United States: And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the exceptions here or elsewhere in this Constitution, made in favor of particular Rights, shall not be so construed as to diminish the just importance of other Rights retained by the People, or as to enlarge the Powers delegated by this Constitution to the United States; but either as an actual limitation of such Powers, or as inserted merely for greater Caution or Clarity, or both Caution and Clarity.
Title III. Treaties
Section 1. Treaties shall not touch upon the rights of the people
No Treaty or other like Agreement shall be made respecting the Rights of the People of the States united or any of them protected, throughout the Union and Confœderacy, by the Constitution and Laws of the United States and, in each State, by the Constitution and Laws thereof, as the case may be; or infringing thereon; or abridging or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; as guaranteed, throughout the Union and Confœderacy, by the Constitution and Laws of the United States, and in each State by the Constitution and Laws thereof.
Section 2. Constitutional grants of power; delegation to foreign power prohibited
No Treaty or other like Agreement shall vest in any international or supranational Organization, or in any foreign Power, any of the legislative, executive, or judicial Powers vested by this Constitution in the Congress, the Governor-General, and in the Courts of the United States, respectively: And in like Manner, no Treaty or other like Agreement shall vest in any international or supranational Organization or in any foreign Power, any of the legislative, executive, or judicial Powers reserved by this Constitution to the States respectively and vested by the Constitution and Laws of any State in the Legislature, chief Executive, and in the Courts, respectively, of such State.
Section 3. Constitution of united states and the states; paramount supremacy
No Treaty or other like Agreement shall alter or abridge, or effect an alteration of abridgment of, the Constitution or Laws of the United States or the Constitution or Laws of any State. A provision of a Treaty or other like Agreement repugnant to the Constitution or Laws of the United States, or in any State to the Constitution or Laws thereof, shall, insofar as such provision shall be repugnant, be null, void, unauthoritative, of no force of any kind, in the United States or in the State or States affected, or both, as the case may be; and all such repugnant provisions shall in no way be binding on, or enforced by, the United States or any of them, as to the Jurisdiction in which such provision or provisions are repugnant.
Section 4. Executive and other agreements in lieu of treaties prohibited
Executive or other Agreements shall not be made in lieu of Treaties. To this end, no Executive or other Agreement shall be made; and all such Agreements purportedly in effect are hereby rescinded and abrogated, and as such are null, void, unauthoritative; are not binding on the United States or any of them; and are of no force of any kind whatever throughout the United States and in every Place subject to their Jurisdiction.
Section 5. Enforcement
  1. The Congress and the several State Legislatures shall have concurrent Power to enforce this Title by Necessary and Proper legislation.
  2. The provisions of this Title shall not be construed as granting to the United States any additional Powers beyond those which are by clear and express words of this Constitution actually delegated to the United States: And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the exceptions here or elsewhere in this Constitution, made in favor of particular Rights, shall not be so construed as to diminish the just importance of other Rights retained by the People, or as to enlarge the Powers delegated by this Constitution to the United States; but either as an actual limitation of such Powers, or as inserted merely for greater Caution or Clarity, or both Caution and Clarity.
Title IV. Citizenship; manner of acquiring
Section 1. Citizenship; manner of acquiring
  1. All Persons born or naturalized in any of the respective States, provided that they are subject to the Jurisdiction thereof, are Citizens of that State.
  2. For the purposes of this section, no Person born in any State shall acquire citizenship of that State on account of birth unless at least one Parent shall also be a Citizen of any of the United States.
  3. Pursuant to this section and the uniform Rule of Naturalization prescribed by the Congress, in and for each State the Legislature thereof shall have Power to prescribe the Manner in which citizenship may be acquired, and the Effect thereof.
Section 2. Citizens of states are citizens of united states
All persons holding citizenship of any of the respective States included within this Union and Confœderacy are also Citizens of the United States.
Section 3. Enforcement
  1. The Congress and the several State Legislatures shall have concurrent Power under this Constitution to enforce this Title by Necessary and Proper legislation: But in enacting such legislation, the Congress shall act under article II-B, section 8, part B; and the State Legislatures under article III, section 1.
  2. The provisions of this Title shall not be construed as granting to the United States any additional Powers beyond those which are by clear and express words of this Constitution actually delegated to the United States: And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the exceptions here or elsewhere in this Constitution, made in favor of particular Rights, shall not be so construed as to diminish the just importance of other Rights retained by the People, or as to enlarge the Powers delegated by this Constitution to the United States; but either as an actual limitation of such Powers, or as inserted merely for greater Caution or Clarity, or both Caution and Clarity.
Title V. Administrative procedure; regulations
Section 1. Administrative procedure; regulations
  1. Every existing Regulation of the United States applicable to any Person or Entity not an actual Official, Agent, Employee, or Instrumentality of the United States shall expire within one Year from the ratification of this Title, unless approved into statute Law by the Federal Council within the same Period, in the Manner prescribed in article II-B, section 8, subsection B, paragraph 7, and article II-E, part II, section 3, of this Constitution.
  2. Every Regulation of the United States not thus enacted as a Statute shall apply, and be enforced upon, only Officials, Agents, Employees, or Instrumentalities of the United States, and not upon other Persons or Entities; or on any of the several States, or on any Official, Agent, Employee, or Instrumentality thereof; or any Territory belonging to the United States, or on any Official, Agent, Employee, or Instrumentality of such Territory: Provided always, that no Regulation of the United States not thus enacted as a Statute shall apply, or be enforced upon, any actual Official, Agent, Instrumentality, or Employee not of the United States.
  3. There shall be no deference to administrative Findings, Decisions, or Recommendations, but each of those shall be strictly proved, including and especially proof of their Constitutionality.
  4. The provisions of this Title shall apply to any Thing made by the United States or any Official, Agent, Instrumentality, or Employee thereof that is functionally equivalent to a Regulation, including Guidelines, Instructions, and executive Orders.
Section 2. Remediation
  1. Any Party shall have standing to challenge the Constitutionality of any Regulation of the United States, and such Regulation shall be presumed unconstitutional unless and until it is proved beyond a reasonable doubt to be constitutional by a unanimous verdict of the federal Court.
  2. Persons or States (including political Subdivisions thereof) injured by any Regulation of the United States while it was in effect, and found to be unconstitutional, shall be entitled to just Compensation therefore upon adjudication in the federal Court, or other Court of competent Jurisdiction.
Title VI. Distribution of surplus revenue to states
Section 1. Revenue; surplus; distribution to states
  1. The Congress, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Federal Council, and acting under article II-B, section 8, subsection B, of this Constitution, shall prescribe by general Law for the regular payment to the respective States which may be included within this Union and Confœderacy of all surplus Revenue of the United States.
  2. The United States shall not, by any Law or Regulation, give preference to any State or any part thereof over another State or any part thereof: But the United States may apportion among the several States such Monies reckoned according to their respective Numbers as determined at the most recent Census.
Section 2. Enforcement
  1. If the Congress, after two Years from the entry into Force of this Title, shall fail to submit to the Federal Council for their Advice and Consent such legislation authorized and mandated in section one, subsection A, of this Title, the Federal Council shall have Power to, and shall proceed forthwith to make such Law directly; and such Law shall have such Force and Validity as if it were passed by the Congress and approved by the Federal Council.
  2. The Federal Council, by and with the Advice and Consent of the presiding Officers of the the several State Legislatures, shall have Power to enforce this Title by Necessary and Proper legislation.
Title VII. Withdrawal from United States
Section 1. Short title
This Title may be cited as the “Secession Amendment”.
Section 2. Withdrawal from union and confœderacy; manner; effect; readmission
  1. Any State which may be included in this Union and Confœderacy may decide to Secede from the said Union and Confœderacy pursuant to its own constitutional requirements.
  2. A State which may be included in this Union and Confœderacy which shall decide to Secede shall notify its intention to the Federal Council and also the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled. Pursuant to the Rules, Terms, and Conditions prescribed by the Federal Council, the United States shall negotiate and conclude an Ordinance of Secession with that State, setting out the Procedure for its Secession, taking into account the Framework for its future Relationship with the United States; such Ordinance of Secession being Negotiated pursuant to such Rules, Terms, and Conditions as shall be prescribed by the Federal Council; and the said Ordinance shall be concluded on behalf of the United States by the Federal Council, provided three-fourths of the Members of the said Federal Council concur, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled.
  3. This Constitution shall cease to apply in, and be binding on, the State in question from the Date of entry into Force of the said Ordinance of Secession or, failing that, two Years after the notification referred to in part B of this section; unless the Federal Council, in Agreement with the State concerned, shall unanimously decide to extend this period.
  4. For the purposes of parts B and C of this section, the member of the Federal Council, Members of the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled representing the withdrawing member State shall not participate in the discussions of the Federal Council, Senate, or House of Representatives, or in decisions concerning it.
  5. Any State which shall have Seceded from this Union and Confœderacy shall, however, forever retain the right to re-apply for Membership in the said Union and Confœderacy, in such Manner and under such Terms and Conditions as the Congress shall by general Law prescribe pursuant to article III, section 5, of this Constitution.
Section 3. Enforcement
  1. The Congress shall have Power to enforce this Title by Necessary and Proper legislation.
  2. The provisions of this Title shall not be construed as granting to the United States any additional Powers beyond those which are by clear and express words of this Constitution actually delegated to the United States: And for greater Certainty, it is declared and shall be understood that the exceptions here or elsewhere in this Constitution, made in favor of particular Rights, shall not be so construed as to diminish the just importance of other Rights retained by the People, or as to enlarge the Powers delegated by this Constitution to the United States; but either as an actual limitation of such Powers, or as inserted merely for greater Caution or Clarity, or both Caution and Clarity.